- For other uses, see DannyKennedy/Charles I, King of the Polish (Military) (disambiguation).
|Philippe in uniform of division general of the Imperial Guard.|
|Grand Hetman of the Polish–Lithuanian Empire|
|Prime Minister||François Guizot|
|Preceded by||Office re-established|
|Succeeded by||François Guizot|
|Monarch||Louis Philippe I|
|Born|| Léopold Charles Philippe|
17 January 1784
Ajaccio, Corsica, Kingdom of France
|Died|| 13 October 1859 (aged 75)|
Vincennes, Second French Empire
|Relations||Brother of Louis-Pierre Philippe|
|Nickname(s)||the Dragoon Prince|
|Allegiance|| French Empire|
Kingdom of France
|Years of service||1799–1848|
|Rank|| Lieutenant Colonel (1799–1805)|
|Commands||19th Dragoon Regiment|
Charles Philippe d'Ornano (17 January 1784 – 13 October 1859) was a French military leader
Early military career
Formation of 19th Dragoons
- Main article: 19th Dragoon Regiment
Colonel Charles Philippe was promote to Lieutenant Colonel on 1802, aged 20, as rewarded he was given his own Dragoon Calvary called the 19th Dragoon Regiment, by given the nickname, "the Dragoon Prince". During his military service, Charles was big fan of tight breeches of his dragoon uniform.
His popularity in France as French dragoon was first of the most popular of French military services. Before his service in Napoleonic Wars in 1804, his personality was unique having a big fan of wearing tight ehite breeches of his dragoon uniform. Of course with the rank of Lieutenant colonel with best skill of a sword and rifle which he was very good at during his younger years. His most known as have no beard or facial features, but his assassination attempted the first week of the formation on 6 April 1802 by British spy, later the spy was killed.
The origins of the 19th Dragoons were gives the divisions of dragoons later joined the new dragoons. The 19th Dragoons was nicknamed, the "Charles Philippe's Dragoons".
The dragoons and himself having a brotherly relationship, of course the Dragoons gained personal friendship with the Duke of Angouleme. The members were almost 500,000 dragoons and was most active Dragoons ranking by the most of the war. His popularity in France was even candidacy of the Polish throne in 1816, which he elected by the Congress of Vienna the following year.
- Main article: Napoleonic Wars
Napoleon's Invasion of England, and Raid of Boulogne
But Napoleon himself decided to invasion of England, Lieutenant General Louis-Philippe agrees that invasion that England will be a threat by King George III. Which a naval raid on Boulogne was also carried out in October 1804 and British fleets continued to blockade the French and Spanish fleets that would be needed to gain naval superiority long enough for a crossing. Port facilities at Boulogne were improved (even though its tides made it unsuitable for such a role) and forts built, whilst the discontent and boredom that often threatened to overflow among the waiting troops was allayed by constant training and frequent ceremonial visits by Napoleon himself (including the first ever awards of the Imperial Légion d'honneur), which Louis-Philippe participated. A medal was struck and a triumphal column erected at Boulogne to celebrate the invasion's anticipated success. However, when Napoleon ordered a large-scale test of the invasion craft despite choppy weather and against the advice of his naval commanders such as Charles René Magon de Médine (commander of the flotilla's right wing), they were shown up as ill-designed for their task and, though Napoleon led rescue efforts in person, many men were lost.
Wounded at Battle of Caldiero
- Main article: Battle of Caldiero (1805)
On October 30th, Lieutenant General Louis-Philippe, aged 18 commanded by Marshal André Masséna. Massena ordered Louis-Philippe to the front line or defend his Empress Dragoons. Louis-Philippe agreed as he attacked the Austrians with his Dragoons.
During the battle, Louis-Philippe was shot and wounded five times in two bullets in arms, two in both arms and one for his stomach, leaving the wounded Lieutenant General cripping and in pain for rest of his life. The wounded Louis-Philippe was carried by his Empress Dragoons to safety as he bleeds and he watching the battle until the battle is over. The bullets that were shot Louis-Philippe was a Austrian rifles. With the victorious battle, the wounded and injuried Lieutenant General Louis-Philippe travelled home back to his birth home to recover his wounds.
Battles of Austerlitz and Schöngrabern
The main body of the Napoleonic French army followed the remains of the Austrian army towards Vienna. Following the failure of the Austrian army at Ulm, a Russian army under General Mikhail Kutuzov was also withdrawing east, and reached the Ill river on 22 October, where it joined with the retreating Corps Kienmayer. On 5 November, they held a successful rearguard action in Amstetten. On 7 November, the Russians arrived in St. Pölten, and then moved across the Danube river the next day. Late on 9 November, they destroyed the bridges across the Danube, holding the last one, at Stein, near Krems, until the late afternoon.
The following day, Mortier ordered Gazan to attack what they believed to be a Russian rear guard, at the village of Stein. This was a trap on the part of Kutuzov, laid for the sole purpose of convincing Mortier that he had retreated further toward Vienna, when he had actually crossed the Danube in force, and lay concealed behind the ridges above the village. In the ensuing Battle of Dürenstein, three Russian columns circled around the First Division of the Corps Mortier, and attacked Gazan from both the front and the rear. Not until Dupont's division arrived, after dark, was Gazan able to start to evacuate his soldiers to the other side of the Danube. Gazan lost close to 40 percent of his division. In addition, 47 officers and 895 men were captured, and he lost five guns, as well as the eagles of the 4th Infantry Regiment, and the eagle and guidon of the 4th Dragoons. The Russians also lost around 4,000, about 16 percent of their force, and two regimental colors. The Austrian Lt. Field Marshal Schmitt was killed as the battle concluded, probably by Russian musketry in the confused melee.
At the Battle of Schöngrabern (also known as the Battle of Hollabrunn) occurred a week after the battle at Duerenstein. On 16 November 1805. near Hollabrunn in Lower Austria. The Russian army of Kutuzov was retiring north of the Danube before the French army of Napoleon. On 13 November 1805 Marshals Murat and Lannes, commanding the French advance guard, had captured a bridge over the Danube at Vienna by falsely claiming that an armistice had been signed, and then rushing the bridge while the guards were distracted. Kutuzov needed to gain time in order to make contact near Brünn with reinforcements led by Buxhowden. He ordered his rearguard under Major-General Prince Pyotr Bagration to delay the French.
After Hollabrun, the armies gathered on the plains to the east of Brno. Napoleon could muster some 75,000 men and 157 guns for the impending battle, but about 7,000 troops under Davout were still far to the south in the direction of Vienna. The Allies had about 73,000 soldiers, seventy percent of them Russian, and 318 guns. On 1 December, both sides occupied their main positions. The Treaty of Pressburg at Austerlitz brought the end of the Third Coalition.
The War of the Fourth Coalition
- Main article: War of the Fourth Coalition
The death of William Pitt in January 1806, Britain and the new Whig administration remained committed to checking the growing power of France. Peace overtures between the two nations early in the new year proved ineffectual due to the still unresolved issues that had led to the breakdown of the Peace of Amiens. One point of contention was the fate of Hanover, a German electorate in personal union with the British monarchy that had been occupied by France since 1803. Dispute over this state would eventually become a casus belli for both Britain and Prussia against France. This issue also dragged Sweden into the war, whose forces had been deployed there as part of the effort to liberate Hanover during the war of the previous coalition. The path to war seemed inevitable after French forces ejected the Swedish troops in April 1806.
- Main article: War of the Fifth Coalition
In early 1810, Tsar Paul made peace with Bonaparte, and the French court in exile fled to Warsaw, then controlled by Prussia. For the next ten years, Louis-Antoine accompanied and advised his uncle, Louis XVIII. They returned to Russia when Alexander I became Tsar, but in mid-1807 the treaty between Napoleon and Alexander forced them to take refuge in England. There, at Hartwell House, King Louis reconstituted his court, and Louis-Antoine was granted an allowance of £300 a month. Twice (in 1807 and 1813) he attempted to return to Russia to join the fight against Napoleon, but was refused permission by the Tsar. He remained in England until 1814 when he sailed to Bordeaux, which had declared for the King. His entry into the city on 12 March 1814 was regarded as the beginning of the Bourbon restoration. From there, Louis Antoine fought alongside the Duke of Wellington to restore his cousin Ferdinand VII to the throne of Spain.
In the 1812 War against Russia (which Napoleon referred to as his "Second Polish Campaign") he commanded a cavalry brigade in the 5th Corps of Count Józef Poniatowski. The Polish poet and playwright Aleksander Fredro, who served under him, recalled that while Sułkowski was courageous and honorable, he had trouble acquiring the full confidence of his men, partly because he tended to use infantry tactics (Sułkowski's previous command) when in charge of a cavalry unit.
Sixth Coalition and Bourbon Restoration
In the War of the Sixth Coalition he was a division general and led the 4th Cavalry Corps of Michał Sokolnicki. After the death of Poniatowski on 19 October 1813, Sułkowski was briefly the main commander of the Polish Corps, even though he was only twenty eight years old at the time. Sułkowski however, did not wish to fight outside of Poland again, and acting on behalf of his unit's sentiment, vowed that Polish troops would not cross the Rhine. After Napoleon made a personal appeal to Polish soldiers they became willing to follow the emperor which put Sułkowski in a difficult position; if he continued to lead his troops he would have to break the oath he made earlier. As a result, he submitted his resignation which was accepted by Napoleon and returned to Poland. The remaining Polish forces from then on were commanded by Jan Henryk Dąbrowski. On 1814, Napoleon was forced to abdicated after the Battle of Leipzig. Louis-Philippe was first retirement form April to September 1814, which he come back from the retirement.
After the abdication of Napoleon, Louis Philippe, known as Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, returned to France during the reign of his cousin Louis XVIII, at the time of the Bourbon Restoration. Louis Philippe had reconciled the Orléans family with Louis XVIII in exile, and was once more to be found in the elaborate royal court. However, his resentment at the treatment of his family, the cadet branch of the House of Bourbon under the Ancien Régime, caused friction between him and Louis XVIII, and he openly sided with the liberal opposition.
Louis Philippe was on far friendlier terms with Louis XVIII's brother and successor, Charles X, who acceded to the throne in 1824, and with whom he socialized. However, his opposition to the policies of Villèle and later of Jules de Polignac caused him to be viewed as a constant threat to the stability of Charles' government. This soon proved to be to his advantage.
Titles, styles and honours
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Vasagar, Jeevan (4 February 2005). "Leopold reigns for a day in Kinshasa". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/feb/04/congo.jeevanvasagar.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Ellison, Danny W. (4 February 2005). "The Biography of Charles I of Poland". Historipedia Wikia. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/feb/04/congo.jeevanvasagar.
- ↑ Chandler, David G. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-02-523660-1, p323
- ↑ "Medal, 1804, National Maritime Museum". http://www.nmm.ac.uk/collections/nelson/viewObject.cfm/category/90346?ID=MEC0833.
- ↑ (de) Rainer Egger. Das Gefecht bei Dürnstein-Loiben 1805. Wien: Bundesverlag, 1986.
- ↑ Smith. Databook. p. 213.
- ↑ (de) Jens-Florian Ebert. "Heinrich von Schmitt". Die Österreichischen Generäle 1792–1815. Napoleon Online: Portal zu Epoch. Markus Stein, editor. Mannheim, Germany. 14 February 2010 version. Accessed 5 February 2010: (de) Egger, p. 29.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Uffindell p. 19.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ David R. Stefancic, Armies in Exile, East European Monographs, 2005, pg. 45