"Louis Napoleon" redirects here. For other uses, see Louis Napoleon (disambiguation)''
Napoleon III
Alexandre Cabanel 002.jpg
Emperor of the French
Reign 2 December 1852 –
4 September 1870
Predecessor Second French Republic
Louis Philippe (King of the French)
Successor Monarchy abolished
Third French Republic
Prime Ministers
See list
1st President of France
In office 20 December 1848 –
2 December 1852
Predecessor Louis-Eugène Cavaignac
(Head of State and Government)
Successor Republic abolished
Second French Empire
Prime Ministers
Born 20 April 1808(1808-04-20)
Paris, French Empire
Died 9 January 1873 (aged 64)
Chislehurst, England
Spouse Eugénie de Montijo
Issue Louis Napoléon, Prince Imperial
Full name
Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte
House House of Bonaparte
Father Louis I of Holland
Mother Hortense de Beauharnais
Religion Roman Catholicism
File:Imperial Standard of Napoléon III.svg
Grandes Armes Impériales (1804-1815)2

Imperial coat of arms

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the first President of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I. He was the first President of France to be elected by a direct popular vote. However, when he was blocked by the Constitution and Parliament from running for a second term, he organized a coup d'état in 1851, and then took the throne as Napoleon III on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation.

During the first years of the Empire, his government imposed censorship and harsh repressive measures against his opponents. Some six thousand were imprisoned or sent to penal colonies until 1859. Thousands more, including Victor Hugo, went into voluntary exile abroad.[1] Beginning in 1862, Napoleon loosened the reins, in what was known as the "Liberal Empire." Many of his opponents returned to France and became members of the National Assembly.[2]

Napoleon III is best known today for his grand reconstruction of Paris, carried out by his prefect of the Seine Baron Haussmann. He launched similar public works projects in Marseille, Lyon and other French cities.[3]

Napoleon III modernized the French banking system, greatly expanded and consolidated the French railroad system, and made the French merchant marine the second largest in the world. He promoted the building of the Suez Canal, and established modern agriculture, which ended famines in France and made France an agricultural exporter. He negotiated the first free trade agreement with Britain, and similar agreements with France's other European trading partners.[4] Social reforms included giving French workers the right to strike and the right to organize. Women's education greatly expanded, as did the list of required subjects in public schools.[5]

In foreign policy, Napoleon III aimed to reassert French influence in Europe and around the world. He was a supporter of popular sovereignty, and of nationalism.[6] In Europe, he allied with Britain and defeated Russia in the Crimean War (1854–56). French troops assisted Italian unification by fighting on the side of the Kingdom of Piedmont. In return, in 1860 France received Savoy and Nice. Later, however, to please French Catholics, he sent soldiers to defend the Papal States against annexation by Italy.

Napoleon III doubled the area of the French overseas Empire; he established French rule in New Caledonia, and Cochinchina, established a protectorate in Cambodia (1863); and colonized parts of Africa. He joined Britain sending an army to China during Second Opium War and the Taiping Rebellion (1860), but French ventures to establish influence in Japan (1867) and Korea (1866) were less successful. His attempt to impose a European monarch, Maximilian I of Mexico on the Mexicans ended in a spectacular failure in 1867.

Beginning in 1866 Napoleon had to face the mounting power of Prussia, as Chancellor Otto von Bismarck sought German unification under Prussian leadership. In July 1870 Napoleon entered the Franco-Prussian War without allies and with inferior military forces. The French army was rapidly defeated and Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan. The French Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris, and Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.

Early lifeEdit

Charles-Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, later known as Louis Napoleon and then Napoleon III, was born in Paris on the night of 20–21 April 1808. His father was Louis Bonaparte, the younger brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made Louis the King of Holland from 1805 until 1810. His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the daughter by the first marriage of Napoleon's wife Joséphine de Beauharnais. As empress, Joséphine proposed the marriage as a way to produce an heir for the Emperor, who agreed, as Joséphine was by then infertile.[7] Louis married Hortense when he was twenty-four and she was nineteen. They had a difficult relationship, and only lived together for brief periods. Their first son died in 1807, and, though separated, they decided to have a third. They resumed their marriage for a brief time in Toulouse in July 1807, and Louis was born, premature, two weeks short of nine months later. Louis Bonaparte's enemies, including Victor Hugo, spread the gossip that he was the child of a different man, but most historians agree today that he was the legitimate son of Louis Bonaparte.[8][9] (see Ancestry) .[10]

Charles-Louis was baptized at the Palace of Fontainebleau on 5 November 1810, with the Emperor Napoleon serving as his godfather, and the Empress Marie-Louise as his godmother. His father, once again separated from Hortense, stayed away. At the age of seven, Louis-Napoleon visited his uncle at the Tuileries Palace in Paris. His uncle held him up to the window to see the soldiers parading in the courtyard of the Carousel below. He last saw his uncle with the family at the Château de Malmaison, shortly before Napoleon departed for Waterloo.[11]

After the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo, and the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France, all members of the Bonaparte dynasty were forced into exile. Hortense and Louis-Napoleon wandered from Aix to Berne to Baden, and finally to Switzerland, in a lakeside house at Arenenberg, in the canton of Thurgau, and to Germany, where he received some of his education at the gymnasium school at Augsburg, Bavaria. As a result, for the rest of his life his French had a slight, but noticeable, German accent. His tutor at home was Philippe Le Bas, an ardent republican and the son of a revolutionary and close friend of Robespierre. Le Bas taught him French history and radical politics.[12]

Romantic revolutionary (1823–35)Edit

When Louis-Napoleon was fifteen, Hortense moved to Rome, where the Bonapartes had a villa. He passed his time learning Italian, exploring the ancient ruins, and learning the arts of seduction and romantic affairs, which he used often in his later life. He became friends with the French Ambassador, François-René Chateaubriand the father of romanticism in French literature, with whom he remained in contact for many years. He was reunited with his older brother Napoléon Louis, and together they became involved with the Carbonari, secret revolutionary societies fighting Austria's domination of northern Italy. In the spring of 1831, when he was twenty-three, the Austrian and papal governments launched an offensive against the Carbonari, and the two brothers, wanted by the police, were forced to flee. During their flight Napoleon-Louis contracted measles and, on 17 March 1831, died in his brother's arms.[13] Hortense joined her son and together they evaded the police and Austrian army and finally reached the French border.[14]

Hortense and Louis-Napoléon travelled incognito to Paris, where the old regime had just fallen and had been replaced by the more liberal regime of King Louis-Philippe I. They arrived in Paris on 23 April 1831, and took up residence under the name "Hamilton." in the Hotel du Holland on Place Vendôme. Hortense wrote an appeal to the King, asking to stay in France, and Louis-Napoleon offered to volunteer as an ordinary soldier in the French Army. The new King agreed to meet secretly with Hortense; Louis Napoleon had a fever and did not join them. The King finally agreed that Hortense and Louis-Napoleon could stay in Paris as long as their stay was brief and incognito. Louis-Napoleon was told that he could join the French Army if he would simply change his name, something he indignantly refused to do. Hortense and Louis Napoleon remained in Paris until 5 May, the tenth anniversary of the death of Napoleon Bonaparte. The presence of Hortense and Louis-Napoleon in the hotel had become known, and a public demonstration of mourning for the Emperor took place on Place Vendôme in front of their hotel. The same day, Hortense and Louis-Napoleon were ordered to leave Paris. They went to Britain briefly, and then back into exile in Switzerland.[15]

Bonaparte Succession and philosophy of BonapartismEdit

Ever since the fall of Napoleon in 1815, a Bonapartist movement existed in France, hoping to return a Bonaparte to the throne. According to the law of succession established by Napoleon I, the claim passed first to his son, who, at birth, had been given the title "King of Rome" by his father. Known by Bonapartists as Napoleon II, he was living under virtual imprisonment at the court of Vienna under the name Duke of Reichstadt. Next in line was Napoleon I's eldest brother Joseph Bonaparte, followed by Louis Bonaparte, but neither Joseph nor Louis Bonaparte had any interest in reentering public life. When the Duke of Reichstadt died in 1831, Louis-Napoléon became the heir of the dynasty and the leader of the Bonaparte cause.[16]

In exile with his mother in Switzerland, he enrolled in the Swiss Army, trained to become an officer, and wrote a manual of artillery; his uncle Napoleon Bonaparte had become famous as an artillery officer. He also began writing about his political philosophy; In 1833, at the age of 25, he published his Rêveries politique, or "political dreams", followed in 1834 by Considérations politiques et militaire sur la suisse ("Political and military considerations about Switzerland"), followed in 1839 by Les Idées napoléoniennes ("Napoleonic Ideas"), a compendium of his political ideas, which was published in three editions and eventually translated in six languages. His doctrine was based upon two ideas; universal suffrage and the primacy of the national interest. He called for a "Monarchy which procures the advantages of the Republic without the inconveniences...", a regime "strong without despotism, free without anarchy, independent without conquest."[17]

Failed coup, and exile in London (1836–40)Edit

File:Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte 1836.JPG

"I believe," Louis Napoleon wrote, "that from time to time, men are created whom I call volunteers of providence, in whose hands are placed the destiny of their countries. I believe I am one of those men. If I am wrong, I can perish uselessly. If I am right, then providence will put me into a position to fulfill my mission."[18] He had seen the popular enthusiasm for Napoleon Bonaparte when he was in Paris, and he was convinced that, if he marched to Paris, as Napoleon Bonaparte had done in 1815 during the One Hundred Days, France would rise up and join him. He began to plan a coup against King Louis-Philippe.

He planned for his uprising to begin in Strasbourg. The colonel of a regiment was brought over the cause. On 29 October 1836, Louis Napoleon arrived in Strasbourg, in the uniform of an officer of artillery, and rallied the regiment to his side. The prefecture was seized, and the prefect arrested. Unfortunately for Louis-Napoleon, the general commanding the garrison escaped and called in a loyal regiment, which surrounded the mutineers. The mutineers surrendered and Louis-Napoleon fled back to Switzerland.[19]

Louis-Philippe demanded that the Swiss government return Louis-Napoleon to France, but the Swiss pointed out that he was a Swiss citizen, and refused to hand him over. Louis-Philippe responded by sending an army to the Swiss border. Louis-Napoleon thanked his Swiss hosts, and voluntarily left the country. The other mutineers were put on trial in Alsace, and were all acquitted.

Louis Napoleon traveled first to London, then to Brazil, and then to New York. He moved into a hotel, where he met the elite of New York society, and the writer Washington Irving. While he was traveling to see more of the United States, he received word that his mother was very ill. He hurried as quickly as he could back to Switzerland. He reached Arenenberg in time to be with his mother on 5 October 1837, when she died. She was finally buried in Reuil, in France, next to her mother, on 11 January 1838, but Louis-Napoleon could not attend, because he was not allowed in France.[20]

Louis-Napoleon returned to London for a new period of exile on 25 October 1838. He had inherited a large fortune from his mother, and took a house in a fashionable neighborhood at 1 Carlton Gardens. He established a household with seventeen servants and several of his old friends and fellow conspirators. He was not received at the court of Queen Victoria, because the government did not want to offend the French government, but he was received by London society. He was made an honorary member of the Army Club and Navy Club, and he met the political and scientific leaders of the day, including Benjamin Disraeli and Michael Faraday. He also did considerable research into the economy of Britain; he had a reserved reading space in the British Museum, and traveled to Manchester and Liverpool to see the factories and railroads. He also strolled in Hyde Park, which he later used as a model when he created the Bois de Boulogne in Paris.[21]

Second coup, prison, escape and exile (1840–48)Edit

Living in the comfort of London, he had not given up the dream of returning to France to complete his destiny. In the summer of 1840 he bought weapons and uniforms and had proclamations printed, gathered a contingent of about sixty armed men, hired a ship called the Edinburgh-Castle, and on 6 August 1840, sailed across the Channel to the port of Boulogne. The attempted coup turned into an even greater fiasco than Strasbourg mutiny. The mutineers were stopped by the customs agents, the soldiers of the garrison refused to join, the mutineers were surrounded on the beach, one was killed and the others arrested. Both the British and French press heaped ridicule on Louis-Napoleon and his plot. The newspaper Le Journal des Débats wrote, "this surpasses comedy. One doesn't kill crazy people, one just locks them up." He was put on trial, where, despite an eloquent defense of his cause, he was sentenced to life in prison in the fortress of Ham in the Somme department of northern France.[22]

The register of the fortress Ham for 7 October 1840 contained a concise description of the new prisoner: "Age: thirty-two years. Height: one meter sixty-six. Hair and eyebrows: chestnut. Eyes: Gray and small. Nose: large. Mouth: ordinary. Beard: brown. Moustache: blond. Chin: pointed. Face: oval. Complexion: pale. Head: sunken in his shoulders, and large shoulders. Back: bent. Lips: thick."[23] Louis Napoleon was kept in an apartment in the fortress which was relatively comfortable. It was decorated with a portrait of his mother, busts of Napolen I and Josephine, and lead toy soldiers of the Imperial Guard. It also contained a large collection of books. He had numerous celebrated visitors, including Alexander Dumas, Chateaubriand, Sir Robert Peel, and the pioneer socialist author Louis Blanc. He even had a mistress, a young woman from the nearby town named Éléonore Vergeot, who gave birth to two of his children.[24]

While in prison, he wrote poems, political essays, an article on Prince William of Orange, a revision of his earlier manual on artillery, a brochure on electricity, a study of the sugar beet industry in France, and a proposal for the construction of a canal through Nicaragua, linking the Pacific and Atlantic, and much more. He contributed articles to regional newspapers and magazines in towns all over France, becoming quite well known as a writer. In his rare spare time, he experimented with chemistry, made electrical machines and crafted wood furniture. His often later referred to things he had learned at The University of Ham."

His most famous literary work was a book entitled L'extinction du pauperism (1844), a study of the causes of poverty in the French industrial working class, with proposals to eliminate it. His conclusion: "The working class has nothing, it is necessary to give them ownership. They have no other wealth than their own labor, it is necessary to give them work that will benefit all....they are without organization and without connections, without rights and without a future; it is necessary to give them rights and a future and to raise them in their own eyes by association, education, and discipline." He proposed various practical ideas for creating a banking and savings system that would provide credit to the working class, and to establish agricultural colonies similar to the kibutzes later founded in Israel.[25] This book was widely reprinted and circulated in France, and played an important part in his future electoral success.

He was busy in prison, but also unhappy and impatient. He was aware that the popularity of Napoleon Bonaparte was steadily increasing in France; the Emperor was the subject of heroic poems, books and plays. Huge crowds had gathered in Paris on 15 December 1840 when the ashes of Napoleon Bonaparte were returned with great ceremony to Paris and handed over to Louis-Napoleon's old enemy, King Louis-Philippe, while Louis Napoleon could only read about it in prison. On 25 May 1846, with this assistance of his doctor and other friends on the outside, he disguised himself as a laborer carrying lumber, and walked out of the prison. His enemies later derisively called him "Badinguet", the name of the laborer whose identity he had assumed. A carriage was waiting to take him to the coast and then by boat to England. A month after his escape, his father Louis died, making Louis-Napoleon the clear heir to the Bonaparte dynasty.[26]

He returned to England, and quickly resumed his place in British society. He lived on King Street in St James's, went to the theatre and hunted, renewed his acquaintance with Benjamin Disraeli, and met Charles Dickens. He went back to his studies at the British Museum. He had an affair with the actress Rachel the most famous French actress of the period, during her tours to England. More important for his future career, he had an affair with the wealthy heiress Harriet Howard (1823–65). They had met In 1846, soon after his return to England. They began to live together, she took in his two illegitimate children and raised them with her own son, and she provided financing for his political plans so that, when the moment came, he could return to France.[27]

1848 Revolution and birth of the Second RepublicEdit

In February 1848, Louis Napoleon learned that a revolution had broken out in Paris, and that Louis-Philippe, faced with opposition within his government and army, had abdicated. Believing that his time had finally come, he set out for Paris on 27 February, departing England on the same day that Louis-Philippe left France for his own exile in England. When he arrived in Paris, he found that the Second Republic had been declared, led by a Provisional Government headed by a Commission led by Alphonse de Lamartine, and that different factions of republicans, from conservatives to those on the far left, were competing for power. He wrote to Lamartine announcing his arrival, saying that he "was without any other ambition than that of serving my country." Lamartine wrote back politely but firmly, asking Louis-Napoleon to leave Paris "until the city is more calm, and not before the elections for the National Assembly." His close advisors urged him to stay and try to take power, but he wanted to show his prudence and loyalty to the Republic; while his advisors remained in Paris, he returned to London on 2 March 1848, and watched events from there.[28]

He did not run in the first elections for the National Assembly, held in April 1848, but three members of the Bonaparte family, Napoleon Jerome, Pierre Bonaparte, and Lucien Murat were elected; the name Bonaparte still had political power. In the next elections, on 4 June, where candidates could run in multiple departments, he was elected in four different departments; in Paris, he was among the top five candidates, just after the conservative leader Adolphe Thiers and Victor Hugo. His followers were mostly on the left; from the peasantry and working class. His pamphlet on "The Extinction of Pauperism" was widely circulated in Paris, and his name was cheered with those of the socialist candidates, Barbès and Louis Blanc.[29]

The conservative leaders of the provisional government, Lamartine and Cavaignac, considered arresting him as a dangerous revolutionary, but once again he outmaneuvered them. He wrote to the President of the Provisional Government: "I believe I should wait to return to the heart of my country, so that my presence in France will not serve as a pretext to the enemies of the Republic."[30]

In June 1848, the June Days Uprising broke out in Paris, led by the far left, against the conservative majority in the National Assembly. Hundreds of barricades appeared in the working-class neighborhoods. General Cavaignac, the leader of the army, first withdrew his soldiers from Paris to allow the insurgents to deploy their barricades, and then returned with overwhelming force to crush the uprising; from 24 to 26 June, there were battles in the streets of the working class districts of Paris. An estimated five thousand insurgents were killed at the barricades; fifteen thousand were arrested, and four thousand deported.[31]

His absence from Paris meant that Louis Napoleon was not connected either with the uprising, or with the brutal repression that had followed. He was still in London on 17–18 September, when the elections for the National Assembly were held, but he was a candidate in thirteen departments. He was elected in five departments; in Paris, he received 110,000 votes of the 247,000 cast, the highest number of votes of any candidate. He returned to Paris on 24 September, and this time he took his place in the National Assembly. In seven months, he had gone from an political exile in London to a highly-visible place in the National Assembly, as the government finished the new Constitution and prepared for the first election ever of a President of the French Republic.[32]

Presidential election of 1848Edit

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The new constitution of the Second Republic, drafted by a commission including Alexis de Tocqueville, called for a strong executive and a president elected by popular vote, through universal male suffrage, rather than chosen by the National Assembly.[33] The elections were scheduled for 10–11 December 1848. Louis Napoleon promptly announced his candidacy. There were four other candidates for the post; General Cavaignac, the Minister of Defense who had led the suppression of the June uprisings in Paris ; Lamartine, the poet-philosopher and leader of the provisional government; Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin, the leader of the socialists, and Raspail, the leader of the far left wing of the socialists.[34]

Louis-Napoleon established his campaign headquarters and residence at the Hotel du Rhin on Place Vendôme. He was accompanied by his companion, Harriet Howard, who gave him a large loan to help finance his campaign. He rarely went to the sessions of the National Assembly, and rarely voted. He was not a gifted orator; he spoke slowly, in a monotone, with a slight German accent from his Swiss education. His opponents sometimes ridiculed him, one comparing him "a turkey who believes he's an eagle."[35]

His campaign appealed to both the left and right. His election manifesto proclaimed his support for "religion, the family, property, the eternal basis of all social order." But it also announced his intent "to give work to those unoccupied; to look out for the old age of the workers; to introduce in industrial laws those improvements which don't ruin the rich, but which bring about the well-being of each and the prosperity of all."[36]

His campaign agents, many of them veterans from Napoleon Bonaparte's Army, raised support for him around the country. He won the grudging endorsement of the conservative leader, Adolphe Thiers, who believed he could be the most easily controlled; Thiers called him "of all the candidates, the least bad."[37] He won the backing of l'Evenement, the newspaper of Victor Hugo, which declared, "We have confidence in him; he carries a great name."[38] His chief opponent, General Cavaignac, expected that Louis-Napoleon would come in first, but that he would receive less than fifty percent of the vote, which would mean the election would go to the National Assembly, where Cavaignac was certain to win.

The elections were held on 10–11 December, and results announced on 20 December. Louis-Napoleon was widely expected to win, but the size of his victory surprised almost everyone. He won 5,572,834 votes, or 74.2 percent of votes cast, compared with 1,469,156 for Cavaignac. The socialist Ledru-Rollin received 376,834; the extreme left candidate Raspail received 37,106, and the poet Lamartine received only 17,000 votes. Louis-Napoleon won the support of all parts of the population; the peasants unhappy with rising prices; unemployed workers; small businessmen who wanted prosperity and order; and intellectuals such as Victor Hugo. He won the votes of 55.6 percent of all registered voters, and won in all but four of France's departments.[39]

Prince-President (1848–51)Edit

Louis Napoléon moved his residence to the Élysée Palace at the end of December 1848, and immediately hung a portrait of his mother in the boudoir and a portrait of Napoléon Bonaparte, in his coronation robes, in the grand salon. Adolphe Thiers recommended that he wear clothing of "democratic simplicity," but, following the model of his uncle, he chose instead the uniform of the General-in-Chief of the Republican Guard, and chose the title of "Prince-President."[40]

He also made his first venture into foreign policy, in Italy, where as a youth he had joined in the patriotic uprising against the Austrians. The previous government had sent an expeditionary force to Rome to help restore the temporal authority of Pope Pius IX, who was being threatened by the troops of the Italian republicans Mazzini and Garibaldi. The French troops came under fire from Garibaldi’s soldiers. The Prince-President, without consulting his ministers, ordered his soldiers to fight if needed in support of the Pope. This was very popular with French Catholics, but infuriated the republicans, who supported Garibaldi.[40] To please the radical republicans, he asked the Pope to introduce liberal reforms and the Code Napoleon to the Papal States. To please the Catholics, he approved the Loi Falloux in 1851, which restored a greater role for the Catholic Church in the French educational system.[41]

Elections were held for the National Assembly on 13–14 May 1849, only a few months after Louis Napoleon had become President, and were largely won by a coalition of conservative republicans, Catholics and monarchists called “The Party of Order,” led by Adolphe Thiers. The socialists and “red” republicans, led by Ledru-Rollin and Raspail, also did well, winning two hundred seats. The moderate republicans, in the middle, did very badly taking just 70-80 seats. The Party of Order had a clear majority, enough to block any initiatives of Louis Napoleon.[42]

On 11 June 1849 the socialists and radical republicans made an attempt to seize power. Ledru-Rollin, from his headquarters in the Conservatory of Arts and Professions, declared that Louis-Napoleon was no longer President and called for a general uprising. A few barricades appeared in the working-class neighborhoods of Paris. Louis Napoleon acted swiftly, and the uprising was short-lived. Paris was declared in a state of siege, the headquarters of the uprising was surrounded and the leaders arrested. Ledru-Rollin fled to England, Raspail was arrested and sent to prison, the republican clubs were closed, and their newspapers closed down.

The National Assembly, now without the red Republicans and determined to keep them out forever, proposed a new election law that placed restrictions on universal male suffrage, imposing a three-year residency requirement. This new law excluded 3.5 out of 9 million French voters, the voters that the leader of the Party of Order, Adolphe Thiers scornfully called "the vile multitude."[43] This new election law was passed in May 1850 by a majority of 433 to 241, putting the National Assembly on a direct collision course with the Prince-President,[44] Louis-Napoléon took the opportunity to break with the Assembly and the conservative ministers opposing his projects in favour of the dispossessed. He secured the support of the army, toured the country making populist speeches condemning the assembly, and presented himself as the protector of universal male suffrage. He demanded that the law be changed, but his proposal was defeated in the Assembly by a vote of 355 to 348.[45]

According to the constitution of 1848, he had to step down at the end of his term, so he sought a constitutional amendment to allow him to succeed himself, arguing that four years were not enough to fully implement his political and economic program. He toured the country and gained support from many of regional governments, and the support of many within the Assembly. The vote in July 1851 was 446 to 278 in favor of changing the law and allowing him to run again, but this was just short of the two-thirds majority needed to amend the constitution.[46]

Coup d'etat (December 1851)Edit

Louis-Napoleon believed that he was supported by the people, and he decided to retain power by other means. His half-brother Morny and a few close advisors began to quietly organize a coup d'état. They brought Major General Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud, a former captain from the foreign legion and a commander of French forces in Algeria, and other officers from the French army in North Africa, to provide military backing for the coup. The date set for the coup was 2 December, the anniversary of the Battle of Austerlitz, and the anniversary of the coronation of Louis-Napoleon's uncle Napoleon I. On the night of 1–2 December, Saint Arnaud's soldiers quietly occupied the national printing office, the Palais Bourbon, newspaper offices, and the strategic points in the city. In the morning, Parisians found posters around the city announcing the dissolution of the National Assembly, the restoration of universal suffrage, new elections, and a state of siege in Paris and the surrounding departments. Sixteen members of the National Assembly were arrested in their homes. When about two-hundred twenty deputies of the moderate right gathered at the city hall of the tenth arrondissement, they were also arrested.[47] On 3 December, Victor Hugo and a few other republicans tried to organize an opposition to the coup. A few barricades appeared, and about one thousand insurgents came out in the streets, but the army moved in force with 30,000 troops and the uprisings were swiftly crushed, with the killing of an estimated three to four hundred opponents of the coup.[48] There were also small uprisings in the more militant red republican towns in the south and center of France, but these were all put down by 10 December.[49]

The coup was followed by a period of repression of Louis-Napoleon's opponents, aimed mostly at the red republicans. About 26,000 people were arrested, including 4,000 in Paris alone. The 239 inmates who were judged most severely were sent to the penal colony in Cayenne.[50] 9,530 folllowers were sent to Algeria, 1,500 were expelled from France, and another 3,000 were given forced residence away from their homes.[51] Soon afterwards, a commission of revision freed 3,500 of those sentenced. In 1859 the remaining 1800 prisoners and exiles were amnestied, with the exception of the republican leader Ledru-Rollin, who was released from prison but required to leave the country.[52]

Strict press censorship was enacted by a decree 17 February 1852. No newspaper dealing with political or social questions could be published without the permission of the government, fines were increased, and the list of press offenses was greatly expanded. After three warnings, a newspaper or journal could be suspended or even permanently closed.[53]

Louis-Napoleon wished to demonstrate that his new government had a broad popular mandate, so on 20–21 December a national plebiscite was held asking if voters agreed to the coup. Mayors in many regions threatened to publish the names of any electors who refused to vote. When asked if they agreed to the coup, 7,439,216 voters said yes, 641,737 voted no, and 1.7 million voters abstained.[54] The fairness and legality of the referendum was immediately questioned by Louis-Napoleon's critics,[55] but Louis Napoleon was convinced that he had been given a public mandate to rule.

Hugo, who had originally supported Louis Napoléon but had been infuriated by the coup d'état, departed Paris for Brussels by train on 11 December 1851. He became the most bitter critic of Louis Napoleon, rejected the amnesty offered him, and did not return to France for twenty years.[56]

Emperor of the French, ReignEdit

From the Second Republic to the Second EmpireEdit

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At the beginning of 1852, Louis Napoleon began preparing a new Constitution, based on the Bonapartist model established by his uncle, Napoleon I. The new constitution was officially prepared by a committee of eighty experts, but was actually drafted by a small group of the Prince-President's inner circle. Under the new document, Louis-Napoleon was automatically reelected as president. Under Article Two, the president could now serve an unlimited number of 10-year terms. The Prince-President was automatically elected to a new term as president. He alone was given the authority to declare war, sign treaties, form alliances and initiate laws. The Constitution re-established universal male suffrage, and also retained a National Assembly, but with greatly reduced authority.[57]

Louis-Napoleon's government imposed new authoritarian measures to control dissent and reduce the power of the opposition. One of his first acts was to settle scores with his old enemy, King Louis-Philippe, who had sent him to prison for life, and who had died in 1850. A decree on 23 January 1852 forbade the late King's family to own property in France, and annulled the inheritance he had given to his children before he became King.

The National Guard, whose members had sometimes joined anti-government demonstrations, was re-organized, and largely used only in parades. Government officials were required to wear uniforms at official formal occasions. The Minister of Education was given the power to dismiss professors at the universities, and to review the content of their courses. Students at the universities were forbidden to wear beards, seen as a symbol of republicanism.[58]

An election was held for a new National Assembly on 29 February 1852, and all the resources of the government were used on behalf of the candidates backing the Prince-President. Of eight million eligible voters, 5,200,000 votes went to the official candidates, and 800,000 to opposition candidates. About one third of the eligible voters abstained. The new assembly included a small number of opponents of Louis-Napoleon, including 17 monarchists, 18 conservatives, two liberal democrats, three republicans and 72 independents.[59]

The ink had barely dried on the new, authoritarian constitution when Louis-Napoléon set about making himself emperor. Following the election, the Prince-President went on a triumphal national tour. In Marseille, he laid the cornerstone of a new cathedral, a new stock exchange, and a chamber of commerce. In Bordeaux, on 9 October 1852, he gave his principal speech:

"We have immense unplowed territories to cultivate; roads to open; ports to dig; rivers to be made navigable; canals to finish, a railroad network to complete. We have, in front of Marseille, a vast kingdom to assimilate into France. We have all the great ports of the west to connect with the American continent by modern communications, which we still lack. We have ruins to repair, false gods to tear down, truths which we need to make triumph. This is how I see the Empire, if the Empire is re-established. These are the conquests I am considering, and you around me, who, like me, want the good of our country, you are my soldiers."[60]

When he returned to Paris at the end of his tour, the city was decorated with large arches, with banners proclaiming "To Napoleon III, emperor". In response to officially inspired requests for the return of the empire, the Senate scheduled another referendum for 21–22 November 1852 on whether to make Napoleon emperor. After an implausible 97 percent voted in favour (7,824,129 votes for and 253,159 against, with two million abstentions), on 2 December 1852—exactly one year after the coup—the Second Republic was officially ended, replaced by the Second French Empire. President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte became Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. His regnal name treats Napoleon II, who never actually ruled, as a true Emperor (he had been briefly recognized as emperor from 22 June to 7 July 1815). The 1851 constitution was retained, with the word "president" replaced by the word "emperor."

Modernizing the infrastructure and the economy (1853–69)Edit

File:Printemps haussmann1.JPG

One of the first priorities of Napoleon III was the modernization of the French economy, which had fallen far behind that of the United Kingdom and some of the German states. Political economics had long been a passion of the Emperor; while in Britain he had visited factories and railroad yards, and in prison he had studied and written about the sugar industry and policies to reduce poverty. He wanted the government to play an active, not a passive role in the economy; in 1839, he had written: “Government is not a necessary evil, as some people claim; it is instead the benevolent motor for the whole social organism.”[61] He did not advocate the government getting directly involved in industry; instead the government took a very active role in building the infrastructure for economic growth. The stock market and investment banks to provide credit; building railroads, ports, canals and roads; and providing training and education. He also opened up French markets to foreign goods, such as railroad track from England, forcing French industry to become more efficient and competitive.[62]

The period was favorable for industrial expansion. The gold rushes in both California and Australia increased the European money supply. In the early years of the Empire, the economy also benefited from the coming of age of those born during the baby boom of the Restoration period.[63] The steady rise of prices caused by the increase of the money supply encouraged company promotion and investment of capital.

Beginning in 1852, he encouraged the creation of new banks, such as Crédit Mobilier, which sold shares to the public and provided loans to both private industry and to the government. Crédit Lyonnais was founded in 1863, and Societe Generale in 1864. These banks provided the funding for Napoléon III’s major projects, from railroads and canals to the rebuilding of Paris. In 1851 France had only 3,500 kilometers of railroads, compared with 10,000 kilometers in England and 800 kilometers in Belgium, a country twenty times smaller than France. Within days of the coup d’etat, Napoléon III’s Minister of Public Works launched a project to build a railroad line around Paris, connecting the different independent lines coming into Paris from around the country. The government provided guarantees for loans to build new lines, and urged railroad companies to consolidate; there were eighteen railroad companies in 1848, and only six at the end of the Empire. By 1870, France had twenty thousand kilometers of railroads, linked to the French ports and to the railroad systems of the neighboring countries, which carried over a hundred million passengers a year and transported the products of France’s new steel mills, mines and factories.[64]

New shipping lines were created and ports rebuilt in Marseille and Le Havre which connected France by sea to the United States, Latin America, North Africa and the Far East. During the Empire the number of steamships tripled, and by 1870 France possessed, after England, the second largest maritime fleet in the world.[65] Napoleon III also backed the greatest maritime project of the age, the construction of the Suez Canal, between 1859 and 1869. The canal was funded by shares on the Paris stock market, and led by a former French diplomat, Ferdinand de Lesseps. It was opened by the Empress Eugénie, with an opera, Aida, written especially for the occasion by Giuseppe Verdi.[66]

The rebuilding of central Paris also encouraged commercial expansion and innovation. The first department store, Bon Marché, opened in Paris in 1852 in a modest building, and expanded rapidly, its income going from 450,000 francs a year to 20 million. Its founder, Aristide Boucicault, commissioned a new glass and iron building, designed by Louis-Charles Boileau and Gustave Eiffel, which opened in 1869, and became the model for the modern department store. Other department stores quickly appeared; Printemps in 1865, and La Samaritaine in 1870. They were soon imitated around the world.[67]

Napoleon III's program also included reclaiming farmland and reforestation. One such project in the Gironde drained and reforested 10,000 square kilometers (3,900 square miles) of moorland, creating the Landes forest, the largest maritime pine forest in Europe.

Reconstruction of Paris (1854–70)Edit

File:Camille Pissarro 002.jpg

Napoleon III began his regime by launching a series of enormous public works projects in Paris, hiring tens of thousands of workers to improve the sanitation, water supply and traffic circulation of the city. To direct this task, he named a new Prefect of the Seine, Georges Eugene Haussmann, and gave him extraordinary powers to rebuild the center of the city. He installed a large map of Paris in a central position in his office, and he and Haussmann planned the new Paris.[68]

The population of Paris had doubled since 1815, with no increase in its area. To accommodate the growing population and those who would be forced from the center by the new boulevards and squares Napoleon III planned to build, he issued a decree annexing eleven surrounding communes, and increasing the number of arrondissements from twelve to twenty, which enlarged the city to its modern boundaries.

For the nearly two decades of Napoleon III's reign, and for a decade afterwards, most of Paris was an enormous construction site. To bring fresh water to the city, his hydraulic engineer, Eugène Belgrand, built a new aqueduct to bring clean water from the Vanne River in Champagne, and a new huge reservoir near the future Parc Montsouris. These two works increased the water supply of Paris from 87,000 to 400,000 cubic meters of water a day.[69] He laid hundreds of kilometers of pipes to distribute the water throughout the city, and built a second network, using the less-clean water from the Ourq and the Seine, to wash the streets and water the new park and gardens. He completely rebuilt the Paris sewers, and installed miles of pipes to distribute gas for thousands of new streetlights along the Paris streets.[70]

Beginning in 1854, In the center of the city, Haussmann's workers tore down hundreds of old buildings and cut eighty kilometers of new avenues, connecting the central points of the city. Buildings along these avenues were required to be the same height and in a similar style, and to be faced with cream-colored stone, creating the signature look of Paris boulevards.

To connect the city with the rest of France, Napoleon III built two new railroad stations: the Gare de Lyon (1855) and the Gare du Nord (1865). He completed Les Halles, the great iron in glass produce market in the center of the city, and built a new municipal hospital, the Hotel Dieu, in the place of crumbling medieval buildings on the Ile de la Cite. The signature architectural landmark was the Paris Opera, the largest theater in the world, designed by Charles Garnier, crowning the center of Napoleon III's new Paris. When the Empress Eugénie saw the model of the opera house, and asked the architect what the style was, Garnier said simply, "Napoleon the Third."[71]

Napoleon III also wanted to build new parks and gardens for the recreation and relaxation of the Parisians, particularly those in the new neighborhoods of the expanding city.[72]

Napoleon III's new parks were inspired by his memories of the parks in London, especially Hyde Park, where he had strolled and promenaded in a carriage while in exile; but he wanted to build on a much larger scale. Working with Haussmann and Jean-Charles Alphand, the engineer who headed the new Service of Promenades and Plantations, he laid out a plan for four major parks at the cardinal points of the compass around the city. Thousands of workers and gardeners began to dig lakes, build cascades, plant lawns, flowerbeds and trees. construct chalets and grottoes. Napoleon III created the Bois de Boulogne (1852–58) to the west of Paris: the Bois de Vincennes (1860–65) to the east; the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont (1865–67) to the north, and Parc Montsouris (1865–78) to the south.[72]

In addition to building the four large parks, Napoleon had the city's older parks, including Parc Monceau, formerly owned by the Orleans family, and the Jardin du Luxembourg, refurbished and replanted. He also created some twenty small parks and gardens in the neighborhoods, as miniature versions of his large parks. Alphand termed this small parks "Green and flowering salons." The intention of Napoleon's plan was to have one park in each of the eighty neighborhoods of Paris, so that no one was more than a ten minute's walk from such a park. The parks were an immediate success with all classes of Parisians.[73]

Search for a wife and an heirEdit

File:Eugénie; keizerin der Fransen (2).jpg

Soon after becoming Emperor, though he was still attached to his companion Harriet Howard, who attended receptions at the Élysée Palace and traveled around France with him, Napoleon III began searching for a wife to give him an heir. He quietly sent a diplomatic delegation to approach the family of princess Carola of Vasa, the granddaughter of deposed king Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden. This declined because of his religion and political uncertainty about his future. Another delegation approached the family of Princess Adelheid of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, a German niece of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, which also lacked enthusiasm for the same reasons and because of his reputation. But even before Napoleon received a response from the family of Princess Adelheid, he announced that he found the right woman: Eugénie de Montijo, 16th Countess of Teba and 15th Marquise of Ardales.

Eugénie, then 23 years of age, met Louis Napoleon at a reception at the Élysée Palace in 1849. Her distant ancestors apparently included a King of Spain and a King of Portugal and the family of Saint Dominic, the founder of the Dominican Order. Her maternal grandfather, William Kirkpatrick of Closeburn, pursued a career as a Scottish wine merchant. She received much of her education in Paris. Her beauty attracted Louis Napoleon, who, as was his custom, tried to seduce her, but she explained to him that she refused to give him her heart outside marriage. He continued to court her. When the wife of one of his ministers humiliated her at a reception in January 1853, she said that she intended to leave Paris for good. The next day Napoleon III proposed marriage. The civil ceremony took place at Tuileries Palace on 22 January 1853, and a much grander ceremony was held a few days later at Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris. In 1856, Eugénie gave birth to a son and heir-apparent, Napoléon, Prince Imperial.[74]

After she bore their heir, Napoleon III resumed his "petites distractions" with other women. Eugénie faithfully performed the duties of an Empress, entertaining guests and accompanying the Emperor to balls, opera, and theater. She traveled to Egypt to open the Suez Canal and officially represented him whenever he traveled outside France. A fervent Catholic and conservative on many issues, she strongly advocated equality for women; she pressured Ministry of National Education (France) to give the first baccalaureate diploma to a woman and tried unsuccessfully to induce the Académie française to elect the writer George Sand as its first female member.[75]

Principle of nationalities (1852–60)Edit

In a speech at Bordeaux shortly after becoming Emperor, Napoleon III proclaimed that "The Empire means peace" ("L'Empire, c'est la paix"), reassuring foreign governments that he would not attack other European powers in order to extend the French Empire. He was, however, determined to follow a strong foreign policy to extend France's influence, and warned that he would not stand by and allow another European power to threaten its neighbor.

He was also, at the beginning of his reign, an advocate of a new "principle of nationalities" (principe des nationalités), supporting the creation of new states based on nationality, such as Italy, in place of the old multinational empires, such as Austria. In this he was influenced by his uncle's policy, as described in the Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène. In all of his foreign policy ventures, he put the interests of France first. These new states, Napoleon III felt, would become natural allies and partners of France.[76]

Alliance with Britain and the Crimean War (1853–56)Edit

Main article: Crimean War
File:William Simpson - Attack on the Malakoff.jpg

From the beginning of the Empire Napoleon III sought an alliance with Britain; he had lived there in exile, and saw Britain as a natural partner in the projects he wanted to accomplish. He soon had an opportunity; in early 1853, Czar Nicholas I of Russia put pressure on the weak Turkish government, demanding that Turkey give Russia a protectorate over the Christian countries of the Balkans as well as control over Constantinople and the Dardanelles. Turkey, backed by Britain and France, refused the Russian demands. A joint British-French fleet was sent to support Turkey. When Russia refused to leave the Romanian territories it had occupied, on 27 March 1854 Britain and France declared war.[77]

It took France and Britain six months to organize a full-scale military expedition to the Black Sea. The Anglo-French fleet landed thirty thousand French and twenty thousand British soldiers in the Crimea on 14 September, and began to lay siege to the major Russian port of Sevastopol. As the siege dragged on, the French and British armies were reinforced, and troops from Sardinia joined them, reaching a total of 140,000 soldiers, but they suffered terribly from epidemics of typhus, dysentery and cholera. During the 332 days of the siege, the French lost 95,000 soldiers, 75,000 to disease. The suffering of the army in the Crimea was carefully concealed from the French public by press censorship.[78]

The death of Czar Nicholas I on 2 March 1855, and his replacement by Alexander II, changed the political equation. In September, after a massive bombardment, the Anglo-French army of fifty thousand men stormed the Russian positions, and the Russians were forced to evacuate Sevastopol. Alexander II sought a political solution, and negotiations were held in Paris in the new building of the French Foreign Ministry, the Quai D'Orsay, from 25 February to 8 April 1856.[77]

The Crimean War added three new place names to Paris; Alma, named for the first French victory on the river of that name, Sevastopol, and Malakoff, named for a tower in the center of the Russian line captured by the French. It had two important diplomatic consequences; Alexander II became an ally of France, and Britain and France were reconciled. In April 1855 Napoleon III and Eugénie went to England and were received at Windsor and Buckingham Palace, and from 17 August to 28,1855, Queen Victoria visited Paris, the first English monarch to do so since Henry VI of England, at the time of the execution of Joan of Arc. The Queen and Napoleon III went together to visit the tomb of his uncle, Napoleon I.[79]

The defeat of Russia and the alliance with Britain gave France increased authority and prestige in Europe. This was the first war between European powers since the close of the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, marking a breakdown of the alliance system that had maintained peace for nearly half a century. The war also effectively ended the Concert of Europe and the Quadruple Alliance, or "Waterloo Coalition" that the other four powers had established. The Paris Peace Conference of 1856 represented a high-water mark for the regime in foreign affairs.[80] It encouraged Napoleon III to make an even bolder foreign policy venture in Italy.[81]

Assassination attempt (January 1858)Edit

On the evening of 14 January 1858, Napoleon III and Eugénie had just arrived in their carriage at the entrance Paris opera, then located on Rue Pelletier, when three bombs exploded outside the opera house. The Emperor's hat was punctured by shrapnel and the Empress was spattered with blood, but they were unharmed. Eight members of the escort and bystanders were killed, and one hundred and six people injured. The Emperor wanted to go to the hospital to see that the wounded were being taken care of, but his staff insisted that he attend the opera, to reassure the public that he was all right and that the explosion was not the result of a gas leak in the theater, as was rumored on the streets. When he left the opera, the Emperor was cheered by a large crowd.[82]

The members of the conspiracy which planted the bombs were quickly apprehended by the police. The leader was an Italian nationalist, Felice Orsini, who was aided by a French former surgeon named Simon Bernard. The two had met in London, where Bernard had persuaded Orsini that, if Napoleon III were killed, a republican revolt would immediately follow in France, and the new republican government would help Italy win independence from Austria. Bernard provided the bombs and financing for the plot. Bernard was in London, where, since he was a political exile, the British government refused to extradite him, but Orisini was tried on 24–25 February, convicted and executed on 13 March 1858. The press reported that, just before he was executed, he cried out, "Vive l'Italie!"[83]

Prelude to Italian CampaignEdit

The bombing focused the attention of France, and particularly of Napoleon III, on the issue of Italian nationalism. Part of Italy, particularly the kingdom of Piedmont and Sardinia, was independent, but Rome was still ruled by the Pope and Lombardy, Venice and much of the north had been occupied by Austrian forces after the downfall of Napoleon I. Napoleon III had fought with the Italian patriots against the Austrians when he was young, and his sympathy was with them, but the Empress, most of his government and the Catholic Church in France supported the Pope and the existing governments. The British Government was also hostile to the idea of promoting nationalism in Italy.

Despite the opposition in his government and in his own palace, Napoleon III did all that he could to support the cause of Piedmont. The King of Piedmont and Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel II, was invited to Paris in November 1855, and given the same royal treatment as Queen Victoria.

Count Cavour, the Prime Minister of Piedmont and Sardinia, came to Paris with the King and employed an unusual emissary in his efforts to win the support of Napoleon III. He brought his beautiful young cousin, Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione (1837–99), to Paris to meet the Emperor. As Cavour had hoped, she caught his eye and became his mistress. Between 1855 and 1857, she used the opportunity to pass messages and to plead the Italian cause.[84]

Soon after the Orsini attack, in July 1858, Napoleon arranged a secret visit by Count Cavour to France. They met at Plombieres, a spa town in the Vosges department. Napoleon agreed with Cavour to join forces and drive the Austrians from Italy. In exchange, Napoleon III asked for Savoy and the territory around Nice, which had been taken from France after Napoleon's fall in 1815. Cavour protested that Nice was Italian, but Napoleon responded that "these are secondary questions. There will be time later to discuss them."[85]

Assured of the support of Napoleon III, Count Cavour began to prepare the army of Piedmont and Sardinia for war against Austria. Napoleon III looked for diplomatic support. He approached Lord Derby and the British Government; Britain was against the war, but agreed to remain neutral. Still facing strong opposition within his own government, In the spring of 1858 Napoleon III offered to negotiate a diplomatic solution with the twenty-eight year old Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, but the Austrians demanded the disarmament of Piedmont first, and sent a fleet with thirty thousand soldiers to reinforce their garrisons in Italy. Napoleon III responded on 26 January 1858 by signing a treaty of alliance with Piedmont and Sardinia; Napoleon promised to send two hundred thousand soldiers to help one hundred thousand soldiers from Piedmont and Sardinia Piedmont drive the Austrians from northern Italy; in return France would receive Nice and Savoy, upon the agreement of their populations.[86]

It was the Emperor Franz Joseph, growing impatient, who finally unleashed the war. On 23 April 1858 he sent an ultimatum to the government of Piedmont in Turin, demanding that they stop their military preparations and disband their army. On 26 April Count Cavour rejected the demands, and on 27 April the Austrian army invaded Piedmont.

War in Italy – Magenta and Solferino (1858–59)Edit

File:Yvon Bataille de Solferino Compiegne.jpg

Napoleon III, though he had very little military experience, decided to lead the French army in Italy himself. Part of the French army crossed over the Alps, while the other part, with the Emperor, landed in Genoa on 18 May 1858. Fortunately for Napoleon and the Piedmontese, the commander of the Austrians, General Giulay, was not very aggressive. His forces greatly outnumbered the Piedmontese army at Turin, but he hesitated, allowing the French and Piedmontese to unite their forces.

Napoleon III wisely left the fighting to his professional generals. The first great battle of the war, on 4 June 1858, was fought at the town of Magenta. It was long and bloody, and the French center was exhausted and nearly broken, but the battle was finally won by a timely attack on the Austrian flank by the soldiers of General MacMahon. The Austrians lost seven thousand men killed and five thousand captured, while the French forces lost four thousand men killed. The battle was largely remembered because, soon after it was fought, patriotic chemists in France gave the name of the battle to their newly discovered bright purple chemical dye; the dye and the color took the name Magenta.[87]

The rest of the Austrian Army was able to escape while Napoleon III and King Victor-Emmanuel made a triumphal entry on 10 June into the city of Milan, previously ruled by the Austrians. They were greeted by huge, jubilant crowds waving Italian and French flags.

The Austrians had been driven from Lombardy, but the army of General Giulay remained in the region of Venice. His army had been reinforced and numbered 250,000 men, slightly more than the French-Piedmontese. On 24 June, the second and decisive battle was fought at Solferino. This battle was even longer and bloodier than Magenta; in a long series of bayonet charges against the Austrian line, forty thousand men died, including 17,500 French soldiers. Napoleon III was horrified by the thousands of dead and wounded on the battlefield. He immediately proposed an armistice to the Austrians, which was accepted on 8 July. A formal treaty ending the war was signed on 11 November 1859.[88]

Count Cavour and the Piedmontese were bitterly disappointed by the abrupt end of the war. Lombardy had been freed, but the Venice region was still controlled by the Austrians, and the Pope was still the ruler of Rome. Cavour angrily resigned his post. Napoleon III returned to Paris on 17 July, and a huge parade and celebration were held on 14 August, in front of the Vendome column, the symbol of the glory of Napoleon I. Napoleon III celebrated the day by granting a general amnesty to the political prisoners and exiles he had chased from France.[89]

In Italy, even without the French army, the process of Italian unification launched by Cavour and Napoleon III took on a momentum of its own. There were uprisings in central Italy and the Papal states, and Italian patriots, led by Garibaldi, invaded and took over Sicily. Napoleon III wrote to the Pope and suggested that he "make the sacrifice of your provinces in revolt and confide them to Victor-Emmanuel." The Pope, furious, declared in a public address that Napoleon III was a "liar and a cheat.".[90] Rome remained in Papal hands, and therefore did not immediately become the capital of Italy, and the region of Venice was still occupied, but the rest of Italy had come under the rule of Victor Emmanuel.

As Cavour had promised, Savoy and Nice were both returned to France in 1860, after a popular referendum; in Nice, 25,734 voted for union with France, just 260 against. France once again had the same boundaries it had had before Napoleon I's defeat. On 18 February 1861, the first Italian parliament met in Turin, and on 23 March, Victor-Emmanuel was proclaimed King of Italy. Count Cavour died a few weeks later, declaring that "Italy is made."[91]

Napoleon's support for the Italian patriots and his confrontation with Pope Pius IX over who govern Rome made him unpopular with French Catholics, and even with the Empress Eugene, who was a fervent Catholic. To win over the French Catholics and his wife, he agreed to guarantee that Rome would remain under the Pope and independent from the rest of Italy, and agreed to keep French troops there. The capital of Italy became Florence, not Rome. However, in 1862, Garibaldi gathered an army to march on Rome, under the slogan, "Rome or death." To avoid a confrontation between Garibaldi and the French soldiers, the Italian government arrested Garibaldi and put him in prison. Napoleon III sought but was unable to find a diplomatic solution that would allow him to withdraw French troops from Rome, while guaranteeing that the city would remain under Papal control.

Garibaldi and his followers made another attempt to capture Rome in November 1867. Some of his followers entered Rome itself, where they were arrested, while Garibaldi and his forces were attacked and defeated by the French and Papal troops near the town of Mentana on 3 November 1867. The contingent of eight thousand French troops remained in Rome until August 1870, when they were withdrawn to join the French army in France just before the Franco-Prussian War. In September 1870, following the defeat of the French army by the Prussians and the capture of Napoleon III, Garibaldi's soldiers finally entered Rome and made it the capital of Italy.[92]

Distant expeditions and the expansion of the Empire (1853–70)Edit

After the successful conclusion of the Italian campaign, and the joining of Savoy and Nice to the territory of France, the foreign policy of Napoleon III entered a calmer period. Expeditions to distant corners of the world and the expansion of the Empire replaced major changes in the map of Europe. The Emperor's health declined; he gained weight, he began to dye his hair to cover the gray, he walked slowly because of gout, and in 1864, at the military camp of Châlons-en-Champagne, he suffered the first medical crisis from his gallstones, the ailment that would kill him nine years later. He was less engaged in governing and less attentive to detail, but still sought opportunities to increase French commerce and prestige globally.[93]

To carry out his new overseas projects, Napoleon III created a new Ministry of the Navy and the Colonies, and appointed an energetic minister, Prosper de Chasseloup-Laubat, to head it. A key part of the enterprise was the modernization of the French Navy; he began the construction of fifteen powerful new battle cruisers powered by steam and driven by propellers; and a fleet of steam powered troop transports. The French Navy became the second most powerful in the world, after Britain's. He also created a new force of colonial troops, including elite units of naval infantry, Zouaves, the Chasseurs d'Afrique, and Algerian sharpshooters, and he expanded the Foreign Legion, which had been founded in 1831 and won fame in the Crimea, Italy and Mexico. By the end of Napoleon III's reign the French overseas territories had tripled in area; in 1870 they covered a million square kilometers, with more than five million inhabitants.[94]

New Caledonia becomes a French possession (1853–54)Edit

On 24 September 1853, Admiral Febvrier Despointes took formal possession of New Caledonia and Port-de-France (Nouméa) was founded 25 June 1854.[95] A few dozen free settlers settled on the west coast in the following years.[95] New Caledonia became a penal colony, and from the 1860s until the end of the transportations in 1897, about 22,000 criminals and political prisoners were sent to New Caledonia.[96]

Colonization of Senegal (1854–65)Edit

Main article: French Senegal

At the beginning of Napoleon III's reign, the presence of France in Senegal was limited to a trading post on the island of Goree, a narrow strip on the coast, the town of Saint-Louis, and a handful of trading posts in the interior. The economy had largely been based on the slave trade, carried out by the rulers of the small kingdoms of the interior, until France abolished slavery in its colonies in 1848. In 1854, Napoleon III named an enterprising French officer, Louis Faidherbe, to govern and expand the colony, and to give it the beginning of a modern economy. Faidherbe built a series of forts along the Senegal River, formed alliances with leaders in the interior, and sent expeditions against those who resisted French rule. He built a new port at Dakar, established and protected telegraph lines and roads, followed these with a rail line between Dakar and Saint-Louis and another into the interior. He built schools, bridges, and systems to supply fresh water to the towns. He also introduced the large-scale cultivation of Bambara groundnuts and peanuts as a commercial crop. Reaching into the Niger valley, Senegal became the primary French base in West Africa and a model colony. Dakar became one of the most important cities of the French Empire and of Africa.[97]

Intervention in China (1858–60)Edit

In 1857, after the murder of a French priest and the arrest by the Chinese police of the crew of a British merchant ship, Napoleon III joined together with Great Britain to form a military expedition to punish the Chinese government. The object of his policy was not to take territory, but to assure that the vast and lucrative Chinese market was open to French commerce, and not the exclusive trading partner of Britain. In January 1858 a combined British and French fleet bombarded and occupied Canton, and landed troops at the mouth of the Hai River in northern China. In June 1858 the Chinese government in Beijing was forced to sign the Treaty of Tientsin with Britain, France, Russia and the United States. This treaty opened six additional Chinese ports to European merchant ships, allowed Christian missionary activity, and legalized the import of Opium into China.[98]

The Chinese government was reluctant to observe the treaty, so Napoleon III and the British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston decided to take more forceful action, in what became known in history as the second phase of the Second Opium War. A joint French-British expeditionary force of 8,000 men was created under a French general, Charles Cousin-Montauban, who had commanded French forces in Algeria. At the beginning of 1860 the French-British fleet sailed from Europe, and in the spring of 1860 landed the army in China. The Anglo-French army force, led by Cousin-Montauban, captured Tientsin, and then marched on the capital. On 21 September 1860 it defeated the army of the Chinese emperor at the Battle of Palikao, and on 6 October 1860 entered Beijing. At the orders of the British commander Lord Elgin, the British and French forces burned and pillaged the Old Summer Palace of the Chinese Emperor. On 25 October 1860, the Chinese Emperor was obliged to accept a second treaty of Tientsin, opening an additional eleven new ports to European trade, making westerners immune to prosecution by Chinese courts, and establishing western diplomatic missions in Beijing.[99] Some of the art objects taken from the looted Summer Palace were carried to France, where the Empress used them to decorate a Chinese-themed salon at the Palace of Fontainebleau, where they can be seen today.[100]

France in Korea and Japan (1866–68)Edit

Main article: French campaign against Korea (1866)

In 1866, French diplomats in China learned that French priests had been arrested and executed in Korea, a country which had had no diplomatic or commercial contact with Europe or America. Twelve Catholic priests at the time were living in Korea, with an estimated 23,000 Korean converts, belonging to churches founded by French missionaries in the 18th century. In January 1866, the 14-year-old King Gojong and his father, the regent, had ordered the arrest of all the French priests. All but three of the priests, including Bishop Simeon-Francois Berneux, were executed, along with an estimated ten thousand converts. The news was brought to China by one of the priests, who escaped by boat with eleven converts.

The Commander of the French Far East Squadron, Rear Admiral Pierre-Gustave Roze, consulted with the French consul in China and decided to launch an expedition to punish the instigators of the massacre. A squadron of French ships, carrying eight hundred naval infantry, sailed to Korea and landed on Ganghwa Island, at the mouth of the Han River. They remained there from 11 October to 12 November, occupying the fortress and town on the island, and seizing weapons, art works and manuscripts. They tried to land on the mainland several times, but were repulsed by Korean soldiers. They were unable to take more decisive action, as the number of Korean soldiers against them steadily increased. When they learned that the remaining two French priests had escaped unharmed, they declared that their mission had been accomplished and sailed away, and Korea returned to isolation from the rest of the world for another ten years.[101]

Because of the distance of Korea from Europe, the intervention was over before Napoleon III and the French government knew it had taken place. The manuscripts taken from the island, 297 volumes of the court records of the last Korean dynasty, were given to the French National Library, and became the beginning of the library's Korean collection. They were returned to the Korean government by President Sarkozy in 2012.

While Korea resisted European influences, the government the Japanese Meiji Emperor, and his enemies, the Tokugawa Shogunate, both sought French military training and technology in their battle for power, known as the Boshin War. In 1867, a military mission to Japan played a key role in modernizing the troops of the Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, and even participated on his side against Imperial troops during the Boshin war. The European representative of the Shogunate, Shibata Takenaka, approached both Britain and France, asking assistance to build a modern shipyard and to train the Shogunate army in modern western warfare. The shipyard, which became the naval base of Yokosuka, was designed by the French engineer Leonce Verny. The British, who supported the imperial faction, declined to provide trainers, but Napoleon III agreed, and in 1867 dispatched a delegation of nineteen French military experts in the fields of infantry, cavalry and artillery to Japan. They trained an elite corps, called the Denshutai, to fight on the side of the Shogun.

On the other side, the Government of the Emperor purchased from the United States a French-built ironclad warship, originally built for the Confederate Navy and called the CSS Stonewall Jackson. The Stonewall Jackson was renamed the Kotetsu (literally "ironclad") and played an important role in the first modern naval battle fought in Japan between the Shogunate and the imperial navies. By 1868, the Imperial forces had won a decisive victory. The French military experts on the side of the Shogun were invited to return to France, but French influence in the Japanese navy remained strong.[102]

France in Indochina and the Pacific (1858–70)Edit

Napoleon III also acted to increase the French presence in Indochina. An important factor in his decision was the belief that France risked becoming a second-rate power by not expanding its influence in East Asia. Deeper down was the sense that France owed the world a civilizing mission.[103]

French missionaries had been active in Vietnam since the 17th century, when the Jesuit priest Alexandre de Rhodes opened a mission there. In 1858 the Vietnamese emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty felt threatened by the French influence and tried to expel the missionaries. Napoleon III sent a naval force of fourteen gunships, carrying three thousand French and three thousand Filipino troops provided by Spain, under Charles Rigault de Genouilly, to compel the government to accept the missionaries and to stop the persecution of Christians. In September 1858 the expeditionary force captured and occupied the port of Da Nang, and then in February 1859 moved south and captured Saigon. The Vietnamese ruler was compelled to cede three provinces to France, and to offer protection to the Christians. The French troops departed for a time to take part in the expedition to China, but in 1862, when the agreements were not fully followed by the Vietnamese emperor, they returned. The Emperor was forced to open treaty ports in Annam and Tonkin, and all of Cochinchina became a French territory in 1864.

In 1863, the ruler of Cambodia, King Norodom, who had been placed in power by the government of Thailand, rebelled against his sponsors and sought the protection of France. The Thai Emperor granted authority over Cambodia to France, in exchange for two provinces of Laos, which were ceded by Cambodia to Thailand. In 1867, Cambodia formally became a protectorate of France.

Intervention in Lebanon (1860–61)Edit

In the spring of 1860, a war broke out in Lebanon, then part of the Ottoman Empire, between the Non-Muslim Druze population and the Maronite Christians. The Ottoman authorities in Lebanon could not stop the violence, and it spread into neighboring Syria, with the massacre of many Christians. In Damascus, the Emir Abd-el-Kadr protected the Christians there against the Muslim rioters. Napoleon III felt obliged to intervene on behalf of the Christians, despite the opposition of London, which feared it would lead to a wider French presence in the Middle East. After long and difficult negotiations to obtain the approval of the British government, Napoleon III sent a French contingent of seven thousand men for a period of six months. The troops arrived in Beirut in August 1860, and took positions in the mountains between the Christian and Muslim communities. Napoleon III organized an international conference in Paris, where the country was placed under the rule of a Christian governor named by the Ottoman Sultan, which restored a fragile peace. The French troops departed in June 1861, after just under one year. The French intervention alarmed the British, but was highly popular with the powerful Catholic political faction in France, which had been alarmed by Napoleon's dispute with the Pope over his territories in Italy.[104]


Algeria had been formally under French rule since 1830, but only in 1852 was the country entirely conquered. There were about a hundred thousand European settlers in the country, at that time, about half of them French. Under the Second Republic the country was ruled by a civilian government, but Louis Napoleon re-established a military government, much to the annoyance of the colonists. By 1857 the army had conquered Kabyle Province, and pacified the country. By 1860 the European population had grown to two hundred thousand, and the land of the Algerians was being rapidly bought and farmed by the new arrivals.[105]

In the first eight years of his rule Napoleon III paid little attention to Algeria. In September 1860, however, he and the Empress Eugénie visited Algeria, and the trip made a deep impression upon them. Eugénie was invited to attend a traditional Arab wedding, and the Emperor met many of the local leaders. The Emperor gradually conceived the idea that Algeria should be governed differently from other colonies. in February 1863, he wrote a public letter to Pelissier, the Military Governor, saying: "Algeria is not a colony in the traditional sense, but an Arab kingdom; the local people have, like the colonists, a legal right to my protection. I am just as much the Emperor of the Arabs of Algeria as I am of the French." He intended to rule Algeria through a government of Arab aristocrats. Toward this end he invited the chiefs of main Algerian tribal groups to his chateau at Compiegne for hunting and festivities.[106]

Compared to previous administrations, Napoleon III was far more sympathetic to the native Algerians.[107] He halted European migration inland, restricting them to the coastal zone. He also freed the Algerian rebel leader Abd al Qadir (who had been promised freedom on surrender but was imprisoned by the previous administration) and gave him a stipend of 150,000 francs. He allowed Muslims to serve in the military and civil service on theoretically equal terms and allowed them to migrate to France. In addition, he gave the option of citizenship; however, for Muslims to take this option they had to accept all of the French civil code, including parts governing inheritance and marriage which might conflict with the Muslim tradition, and they had to reject the competence of religious Sharia courts. This was interpreted by some Muslims as requiring them to give up parts of their religion to obtain citizenship and was resented.

More importantly, Napoleon III changed the system of land tenure. While ostensibly well-intentioned, in effect this move destroyed the traditional system of land management and deprived many Algerians of land. While Napoleon did renounce state claims to tribal lands, he also began a process of dismantling tribal land ownership in favour of individual land ownership. This process was corrupted by French officials sympathetic to the French in Algeria who took much of the land they surveyed into public domain. In addition, many tribal leaders, chosen for loyalty to the French rather than influence in their tribe, immediately sold communal land for cash.[108]

His attempted reforms were interrupted in 1864 by an Arab insurrection, which required more than a year and an army of 85,000 soldiers to suppress. Nonetheless, he did not give up his idea of making Algeria a model where French colonists and Arabs could live and work together as equals. He traveled to Algiers for a second time on 3 May 1865, and this time he remained for a month, meeting with tribal leaders and local officials. He offered a wide amnesty to participants of the insurrection, and promised to name Arabs to high positions in his government. He also promised a large public works program of new ports, railroads, and roads. However, once again his plans met a major natural obstacle' in 1866 and 1867, Algeria was struck by an epidemic of cholera, clouds of locusts, draught and famine, and his reforms were hindered by the French colonists, who voted massively against him in the plebiscites of his late reign.[109]

French Intervention in Mexico (1862–67)Edit

Main article: French intervention in Mexico
File:Emperador Maximiliano I de Mexico.jpg

In December 1862, the conservative Mexican government was overthrown by Benito Juarez, who established a secular state and refused to pay the internal and external debts of the old government. France was the largest owner of the debt, owed 135 million gold francs of the 260 million francs total. The rest of the debt was owed to Britain (85 million francs) and Spain (40 million). Seventy-five million francs of the French portion were owed to a single individual, a Swiss banker named Jecker, who had been hastily naturalized as a French citizen so that he could collect it, with the help of Napoleon III's advisor and half-brother, Mornay, who was to receive a commission of thirty percent for his help.[110] Under an 1861 agreement, France, Britain and Spain organized a joint military force to compel the Mexican government to pay. A British-French flotilla of ships arrived at VeraCruz in December 1861 and landed 7500 French soldiers and 700 British soldiers, joined later by 6000 Spanish soldiers from Cuba.

Juarez opened negotiations with the international force, but it soon became evident that the French expedition had a more ambitious objective than debt repayment. Napoleon III and the Empress had been intensively lobbied by Mexican émigrés in Europe, who proposed that France establish a new conservative and Catholic government in Mexico, under a European monarch. Napoleon III was told that the new monarch would be welcomed by the entire Mexican population. He consented to launch the operation if the new monarch would be approved by a national plebiscite, as he had been. The monarch selected for this task was the Archduke Maximilian, the brother of the Austrian Emperor Franz-Joseph II, and wife of Charlotte, daughter of the King of Belgium.[110]

When the British and Spanish realized the French goals, they withdrew from the expedition, but the French marched on Mexico City. The first attempt by General Lorencez was repulsed by the forces of General Ignacio Zaragoza at Puebla on 5 May 1862, the first defeat of a French Army since Waterloo.[111][112] Napoleon III appointed a new commander, General Forey, one of the victors of Solferino, and sent 23,000 fresh soldiers. Napoleon wrote a letter giving Forey his instructions:

"We have an interest that the United States be powerful and successful, but we have no interest that they take over the entire Gulf of Mexico and be sole provider of products in the New World...If on the contrary Mexico preserves its independence and the integrity of its territory, if a stable government can be established with the assistance of France, we will have rendered the Latin race on the other side of the ocean its force and its prestige....We will have established our benevolent influence in the center of America, and this benevolence, in creating immense outlets for our commerce, will obtain for us the materials necessary for our industry."[113]

Napoleon III believed that the Mexican people would embrace the new government. He also knew that the government of the United States would be unable to prevent it, even though it was in contravention of the Monroe Doctrine, because of the American Civil War.

The reinforced French army under Forey launched a new offensive from March to June 1863. After bitter resistance, the defenders of Mexico City surrendered on 7 June 1863. Forey, disregarding Napoleon III's instructions not to install a monarch without a popular plebiscite, organized an assembly of Mexican notables who proclaimed the Mexican Empire and invited Maximilian I of Mexico to rule. Ruling President Benito Juárez and his Republican forces retreated to the countryside and fought against the French troops and the Mexican monarchists.

Maximilian was a reluctant Emperor, not arriving in Mexico until June 1864. One of his first acts was to sign an agreement that Mexico would repay France the entire cost of the war, some 270 million francs by July 1864, and 25-35 million francs a year afer that. This agreement put his empire deep into debt that it could not possibly pay.[114]

The combined Mexican monarchist and French forces won victories up until 1865, but then the tide began to turn against them, in part because the American Civil War had ended. The U.S. government demanded that France withdraw its soldiers from Mexico. Facing a guerilla war and a financial catastrophe, the Emperor Maximilian became more and more depressed, leaving the capital for long periods and allowing the Empress Carlotta to reign. Not willing to have a war with the United States, Napoleon III decided at the beginning of 1866 to withdraw French troops from Mexico. In 1863 Maximilian had sent Carlotta to Europe to appeal for funds and support. She appealed to Napoleon III, but he refused to provide more troops or money. During her tour of European courts, she lost and never regained her sanity. Maximilian refused pleas that he depart, and fought against the growing partisan army of Juarez. He was captured, judged, and shot on 19 June 1867.

The complete failure of the Mexican intervention was a humiliation for Napoleon, and he was widely blamed across Europe for Maximilian's death. However, letters have since shown that Napoleon III and Leopold of Belgium both warned Maximilian not to depend on European support. Empress Eugénie was also blamed for the fiasco.[115]

The misadventure in Mexico cost the lives of six thousand French soldiers and 336 million francs, in a campaign originally designed to collect 60 million francs. It also aroused the hostility of both the United States and Austria, which had lost a member of its royal family. It was also a distraction to Napoleon III, on the eve of his coming confrontation wth Prussia.[116]

French–British relationsEdit

Despite an historic free trade agreement between Britain and France, and the joint operations conducted by France and Britain in the Crimea, China and Mexico, diplomatic relations between Britain and France never became close. Lord Palmerston, the British foreign secretary from 1846 to 1851 and prime minister from 1855 to 1865, sought to maintain the balance of power in Europe; this rarely involved an alignment with France. In 1859 there were even briefly fears that France might try to invade the UK.[117] Palmerston was suspicious of France's interventions in Lebanon, Southeast Asia and Mexico. Palmerston was also concerned that France might intervene in the American Civil War (1861–65). on the side of the South.[118]

French–U.S. relationsEdit

Main article: France in the American Civil War

During 1861 to 1862, at the beginning of the American Civil War, Napoleon III considered recognizing the Confederacy. The United States repeatedly warned that this meant war but the emperor kept this option open. The Union blockade of southern ports stopped the supply of cotton to textile mills in France, and caused unemployment. The Confederacy had put their faith in "King Cotton" diplomacy, expecting that the cutoff of cotton supplies would cause Britain and France to declare war to reopen the trade. Through 1862, Napoleon III met unofficially with Confederate diplomats, raising their hopes that he would unilaterally recognize the Confederacy. France was too weak to act without collaboration with the British, who rejected intervention. Napoleon realized that a war with the U.S. without allies "would spell disaster" for France.[119] In 1863 the Confederacy realized there was no longer any chance of intervention, and expelled the French and British consuls, who were advising their citizens not to enlist in the Confederate Army.[120][121]

Life at the court of Napoleon IIIEdit


Following the model of the Kings of France and of his uncle, Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon III moved his official residence to the Tuileries Palace, where he had a suite of rooms on the ground floor of the south wing between he Seine and the pavilion de Horloge, facing the garden. His bedroom was decorated with a talisman from Charlemagne, a symbol of good luck for the Bonaparte family, while his office featured a portrait of Julius Caesar by Ingres, and a large map of Paris, which he used to show his ideas for the reconstruction of Paris to his prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. The Emperor's rooms were overheated and were filled with smoke, as he smoked cigarette after cigarette. The Empress occupied a suite of rooms just above his highly decorated in the style of Louis XVI, with a pink salon, a green salon and a blue salon.[122]

The court moved with the Emperor and Empress from palace to palace each year following a regular calendar. At the beginning of May, the Emperor and court moved to the Chateau of Saint-Cloud, for outdoor activities in the park. In June and July, they moved with selected guests to the Palace of Fontainebleau, for walks in the forest, and boating on the lake. In July, the court moved to a thermal bath for a health cure; first to Plombieres, then to Vichy, then, after 1856, to the military camp and residence he had built at Chalons-sur-Marne, where he could take the waters and review military parades and exercises. Beginning in 1856, the Emperor and Empress spent each September in Biarritz in a large villa overlooking the sea. They would walk on the beach or travel to the mountains, and in the evenings they would dance and sing and play cards and take part in other games and amateur theatricals and charades with their guests. In November the court moved to the Château de Compiègne, for forest excursions, dancing and more games. Famous scientists and artists, such as Louis Pasteur, Gustave Flaubert, Eugene Delacroix and Verdi, were invited to participate in the festivities at Compiegne.[123]

At the end of the year the Emperor and Court returned to the Tuileries Palace, and gave a series of formal receptions, and three or four grand balls, with six hundred guests, early in the new year. During carnival there were a series of very elaborate costume balls, on the themes of different countries and different historical periods, for which guests sometimes spent small fortunes on their costumes. During lent the balls were replaced by concerts by both professionals and amateurs. After Easter, the Empress hosted a series of smaller balls for her friends until May, when it was time to depart again for Saint-Cloud.

In addition to these events, the Emperor's calendar was occupied with the elaborate ceremonies and entertainments given for the visiting sovereigns of Europe; Queen Victoria came in 1855, the King of Prussia, Wilhelm I, came to Compiegne in 1861, and Emperor Alexander II of Russia, Emperor Franz-Joseph I of Austria and King Luís I of Portugal came to attend the Paris International Exhibition of 1867


Main article: Paris during the Second Empire
File:Édouard Manet - Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe.jpg

Napoleon III had conservative and traditional taste in art: his favorite painters were Alexandre Cabanel and Franz Xaver Winterhalter, who received major commissions, and whose work was purchased for state museums. At the same time, he followed public opinion, and he made an important contribution to the French avant-garde. In 1863, the jury of the Paris Salon, the famous annual showcase of French painting, headed by the ultra-conservative Comte de Nieuwerkerke, the director of the Academy of Fine Arts, refused all submissions by avant-garde artists, including those by Edouard Manet, Camille Pissaro and Johan Jongkind. The artists and their friends complained, and the complaints reached Napoleon III. His office issued a statement: "Numerous complaints have come to the Emperor on the subject of the works of art which were refused by the jury of the Exposition. His Majesty, wishing to let the public judge the legitimacy of these complaints, has decided that the works of art which were refused should be displayed in another part of the Palace of Industry."[124]

Following Napoleon's decree, an exhibit of the rejected paintings, called the Salon des Refusés, was held in another part of the Palace of Industry, where the Salon took place. More than a thousand visitors a day came to see now-famous paintings as Édouard Manet's Déjeuner sur l'herbe and James McNeill Whistler's Symphony in White, No. 1: The White Girl. '[125] The journalist Émile Zola reported that visitors pushed to get into the crowded galeries where the refused paintings were hung, and the rooms were full of the laughter and mocking comments of many of the spectators. While the paintings were ridiculed by many critics and visitors, the work of the avante-garde became known for the first time to the French public, and it took its place alongside the more traditional style of painting.[126]


Napoleon III also began or completed the restoration of several important historic landmarks, carried out for him by Eugene Viollet-le-Duc. He restored the fleche, or spire, of the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, which had been destroyed during the French Revolution. In 1855 he completed the restoration, begun in 1845, of the stained glass windows of Sainte-Chapelle, and in 1862 he declared it a national historical monument. In 1853, he approved and provided funding for Viollet-le-Duc's restoration of the medieval town of Carcassonne. He also sponsored Viollet-le-Duc's restoration of the Chateau de Vincennes and the Chateau de Pierrefonds, In 1862, he closed the prison which had occupied the Abbey of Mont Saint Michel since the French Revolution, where many important political prisoners had been held, so it could be restored and opened to the public.

Social policy and reformsEdit

From the beginning of his reign Napoleon III launched a series of social reforms aimed at improving the life of the working class. He began with small projects, such as opening up two clinics in Paris for sick and injured workers, a program of legal assistance to those unable to afford it, and subsidies to companies which built low-cost housing for their workers. He outlawed the practice of employers taking possession of or making comments in the work document that every employee was required to carry; negative comments meant that workers were unable to get other jobs. In 1866, he encouraged the creation of a state insurance fund to help workers or peasants who became disabled, and to help their widows and families.[127]

To help the working class, Napoleon III offered a prize to anyone who could develop an inexpensive substitute for butter; the prize was won by the French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès, who in 1869 patented a product he named oleomargarine, later shortened to simply margarine.[128]

Rights to strike and organize (1864–66)Edit

His most important social reform was the 1864 law which gave French workers the right to strike, which had been forbidden since 1810. In 1866 he added to this an "Edict of Tolerance," which gave factory workers the right to organize. He issued a decree regulating the treatment of apprentices, limited working hours on Sundays and holidays, and removed from the Napoleonic Code the infamous article 1781, which said that the declaration of the employer, even without proof, would be given more weight by the court than the word of the employee.[129]

Education for girls and women, and school reform (1861–69)Edit

File:J.V Daubié.jpg

Napoleon III and the Empress Eugénie worked to give girls and women greater access to public education. In 1861, through the direct intervention of the Emperor and the Empress, Julie-Victoire Daubié became the first woman in France to receive baccalauréat diploma.[130] In 1862, the first professional school for young women was opened, and Madeleine Brès became the first woman to enroll in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Paris.

In 1863, he made Victor Duruy, the son of a factory worker and a respected historian, his new Minister of Public Education. Duruy greatly accelerated the pace of the reforms, often coming into conflict with the Catholic church, which wanted the leading role in education. Despite the opposition of the church, Duruy opened schools for girls in each commune with more than five hundred residents, a total of eight hundred new schools.[131]

Between 1863 and 1869, Duruy created scholastic libraries for fifteen thousand schools, and required that primary schools offer courses in history and geography. Secondary schools began to teach philosophy, which had been banned by the previous regime at the request of the Catholic church. For the first time public schools in France began to teach contemporary history, modern languages, art, gymnastics and music. The results of the school reforms were dramatic: in 1852, over 40 percent of army conscripts in France were unable to read or write. By 1869, the number had dropped to 25 percent. The rate of illiteracy among both girls and boys dropped to 32 percent. [131]

At the university level, Napoleon III founded new faculties in Marseille, Douai, Nancy, Clermont-Ferrand and Poitiers, and founded a network of research institutes of higher studies in the sciences, history, and economics. These also were criticized by the Catholic Church. The Cardinal-Archbishop of Rouen, Monseigneur Bonnechose, wrote: "True science is religious, while false science, on the other hand, is vain and prideful; being unable to explain God, it rebels against him."[132]

Economic policyEdit

Lower tariffs and the opening of French markets (1860)Edit

One of the centerpieces of the economic policy of Napoleon III was the lowering of tariffs and the opening of French markets to imported goods. He had been in Britain in 1846 when Prime Minister Robert Peel had lowered tariffs on imported grains, and he had seen the benefits to British consumers and the British economy. However, he faced bitter opposition from many French industrialists and farmers, who feared British competition. Convinced he was right, he sent his chief economic advisor, Michel Chevalier, to London to begin discussions, and secretly negotiated a new commercial agreement with Britain, calling for the gradual lowering of tariffs in both countries. He signed the treaty, without consulting with the Assembly, on 23 January 1860. Four hundred of the top industrialists in France came to Paris to protest, but he refused to yield. Industrial tariffs on such products as steel rails for railroads were lowered first; tariffs on grains were not lowered until June 1861. Similar agreements were negotiated with the Netherlands, Italy, and France's other neighbors. France's industries were forced to modernize and become more efficient to compete with the British, as Napoleon III had intended. Commerce between the countries surged.[133]

Economic expansion and social changeEdit

By the 1860s, the huge state investment in railroads, infrastructure and fiscal policies of Napoleon III had brought dramatic changes to the French economy and French society. French people traveled in greater numbers, more often and farther than they had ever traveled before. The opening of the first public school libraries by Napoleon III and the opening by Louis Hachette of the first bookstores in Napoleon's new train stations led to the wider circulation of books around France.[134]

During the Empire industrial production increased by 73 percent, growing twice as rapidly but still in second place to Britain. From 1850 to 1857, the French economy grew at a pace of five percent a year, and exports grew by sixty percent between 1855 and 1869.[135]

French agricultural production increased by sixty percent, spurred by new farming techniques taught at the agricultural schools started in each Department by Napoleon III, and new markets opened by the railroads. The threat of famine, which for centuries had haunted the French countryside, receded. The last recorded famine in France was in 1855.[135]

During the Empire, the migration of the rural population to the cities increased. The portion of the population active in agriculture dropped from 61 percent in 1851 to 54 percent in 1870.[136]

The average salary of French workers grew by 45 percent during the Second Empire, but only kept up with price inflation. On the other hand, more French people than ever were able to save money; the number of bank accounts grew from 742,889 in 1852 to 2,079,141 in 1870.[136]

Growing opposition and liberal concessions (1860–70)Edit

Despite the economic progress the country had made, domestic opposition to Napoleon III was slowly growing, particularly in the National Assembly. The republicans on the left had always opposed him, believing he had usurped power and suppressed the Republic. The conservative Catholics were increasingly unhappy, because he had taken away the Papal States from the Pope, and because he had built up the public education system, which was a rival to the Catholic system. Many businessmen, particularly in the metallurgical and textile industries, were unhappy, because he had reduced the tariffs on British products, putting the British products in direct competition with their own. The members of the Assembly were particularly unhappy with him, because he went to them only when he needed money. When he had liberalized trade with England, he had not even consulted them.[137]

Napoleon's large-scale program of public works, and his expensive foreign policy, had created rapidly mounting government debts; the annual deficit was about fr.100 million, and the cumulative debt had reached nearly fr.1 billion. The Emperor needed to restore the confidence of the business world, and to involve the legislature and have them share responsibility.

On 24 December 1861, Napoleon III, against the opposition of his own ministers, issued a decree announcing that the legislature would have greater powers. The Senate and the assembly could, for the first time, give a response to the Emperor's program, ministers were obliged to defend their programs before the assembly, and the right of Deputies to amend the programs was enlarged. On 1 February 1861, further reforms were announced: Deputies could speak from the tribune, not just from their seats, and a stenographic record would be made and published of each session. Another even more important reform was announced on 31 December 1861: the budget of each ministry would be voted section by section, not in a block, and the government could no longer spend money by special decree when the legislature was not in session. He did retain the right to change the budget estimates section by section.

The Deputies quickly took advantage of their new rights; the Emperor's Italian policy was bitterly condemned in the Assembly, and anti-government amendments by the pro-Catholic deputies were narrowly defeated by votes of 158 to 91 in the Assembly and 79 to 61 in the Senate.[138]

In the legislative elections of 31 May 1863, the pro-government candidates received 5,308,000 votes, while the opposition received 1,954,000 votes, three times more than in the previous elections. The rural departments still voted for Napoleon III's candidates, but in Paris 63 percent of the votes went to anti-government republican candidates, with similar numbers in all the large cities. The new assembly contained a large opposition block. ranging from Catholics outraged by the Papal policies to Legitimists, Orleanists, protectionists and republicans, armed with new powers given to them by the Emperor himself.[139][140]

Despite the opposition in the legislature, Napoleon III's reforms remained popular in the rest of the country. A new plebiscite was held in 1870, on the text: "The people approve the liberal reforms added to the Constitution since 1860 by the Emperor, with the agreement of the legislative bodies and ratified the Senate on april 20, 1870." Napoleon III saw this as a referendum on his rule as Emperor: "By voting yes," he wrote, "you will chase away the threat of revolution; you will place the nation on a solid base of order and liberty, and you will make it easier to pass on the Crown to my son." When the votes were counted, Napoleon III had lost Paris and the other big cities but decisively won the rest of the country. The final vote was 7,336,434 votes yes, 1,560,709 votes no, and 1,900,000 abstentions. Leon Gambetta, the leader of the republican opposition, wrote in despair, "We were crushed. The Emperor is more popular than ever."[141]

Declining healthEdit

Through the 1860s, the health of the Emperor steadily worsened. It had been damaged by his six years in prison at Ham; he had chronic pains in his legs and feet, particularly when it was cold, and as a result, he always lived and worked in overheated rooms and offices. He smoked cigarette after cigarette. He distrusted doctors and disregarded medical advice, and attributed any problems simply to "rheumatism", for which he regularly visited the hot springs at Vichy and other spas. It became difficult for him to ride a horse, and he was obliged to walk slowly, often with a cane. From 1869 onwards, the crises of his urinary tract were treated with opium, which made him seem lethargic, sleepy and apathetic. His writing became hard to read, and his voice weak. In the spring of 1870 he was visited by an old friend from England, Lord Malmesbury. Malmesbury found him to be "terribly changed and very ill."[142]

The health problems of the Emperor were kept secret by the government, which feared that, if his condition became public, the opposition would demand his resignation. One newspaper, the Courrier de la Vienne, was warned by the censors to stop publishing articles which had "a clear and malicious intent to spread, contrary to the truth, alarms about the health of the Emperor."[143]

At the end of June 1870, a specialist in the problems of urinary tracts, Germain Sée was finally summoned to examine him. Sée reported that the Emperor was suffering from a gallstone. On 2 July, four eminent French doctors, Nélaton, Ricord, Fauvel and Corvisart, examined him and confirmed the diagnosis. They were reluctant to operate, however, because of the high risk (gallstone operations did not become relatively safe until the 1880s) and because weakness of the patient. Before anything further could be done, however, France was in the middle of a diplomatic crisis.[144]

Rise of PrussiaEdit

In the 1860s, a new rival to French power in Europe appeared on the horizon; Prussia, and its chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, who had ambitions for Prussia to lead a unified Germany. In May 1862, Bismarck came to Paris on a diplomatic mission and met Napoleon III for the first time. They had cordial relations. On 30 September 1862, however, in Munich, Bismarck declared, in a famous speech: "It is not by speeches and votes of the majority that the great questions of our period will be settled, as one believed in 1848, but by iron and blood." Bismarck saw Austria and France as the main obstacles to his ambitions, and set out to divide and defeat them.

Search for allies, and war between Austria and PrussiaEdit

In the summer of 1865, when Prussia invaded and annexed the German-speaking provinces of Denmark, Napoleon III recognized the threat that a unified Germany would pose to France, and he looked for allies to challenge it, without success. The British government was suspicious that Napoleon wanted to take over Belgium, felt secure with its powerful navy, and did not want any military engagements on the European continent. The Russian government was also suspicious of Napoleon, whom it believed had encouraged Polish nationalists to rebel against Russian rule. Bismarck and Prussia, on the other hand, had offered assistance to Russia to help crush the Polish patriots.[145]

In October 1865, Napoleon had a cordial meeting with Bismarck at Biarritz. They discussed Veneto, Austria's remaining province in Italy. Bismarck told Napoleon that Germany had no secret arrangement to give Veneto to Italy, and Napoleon assured him in turn that France had no secret understanding with Austria. Bismarck hinted vaguely that, in the event of a war between Austria and Prussia, French neutrality would be rewarded with some sort of territory as a compensation.[146]

In 1866, relations between Austria and Prussia worsened and Bismarck demanded the expulsion of Austria from the German confederation. Napoleon and his foreign minister, Drouyn de Lhuys, expected a long war and an eventual Austrian victory. Napoleon III felt he could extract a price from both Prussia and Austria for French neutrality. On 12 June 1866, France signed a secret treaty with Austria, guaranteeing French neutrality in a Prussian-Austrian war. In exchange, in the event of an Austrian victory, Austria would give Veneto to France, and also would create a new independent German state on the Rhine, which would become an ally of France. At the same time, Napoleon proposed a secret treaty with Bismarck, promising that France would remain neutral in a war between Austria and Prussia. In the event of a Prussian victory, France would recognize Prussia's annexation of smaller German states, and France, in exchange, would receive a portion of German territory. Bismarck, confident of success, summarily rejected Napoleon's offer.

On 15 June, the Prussian Army invaded Saxony, an ally of Austria. On 2 July, Austria asked Napoleon to arrange an armistice between Italy, which had allied itself with Prussia, and Austria, in exchange for which France would receive the Veneto Region. But on 3 July, the Prussian army crushed the Austrian army at the Battle of Sadowa, in Bohemia. The way to Vienna was open for the Prussians, and Austria asked for an armistice. The armistice was signed on 22 July; Prussia annexed Hannover, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Nassau and Frankfurt, with a combined population of four million people.[147]

The Austrian defeat was followed by a new crisis in the health of Napoleon III. Metternich, the Austrian Ambassador to France, saw the Emperor on 7 July and reported: "Since I have known the Emperor, never have I seen him in such a state of complete prostration." Marshal Canrobert, who saw him on 28 July, wrote that the Emperor "was pitiful to see. He could barely sit up in his armchair, and his drawn face expressed at the same time moral anguish and physical pain."[148]

Luxembourg CrisisEdit

Main article: Luxembourg Crisis

Napoleon III still hoped to receive some compensation from Prussia for French neutrality during the war. His foreign minister, Drouyn, asked Bismarck for the Palitanate of Bavaria, and for the demilitarization of Luxembourg, which was the site of a Prussian fortress. Napoleon's senior advisor, Rouher, increased the demands, asking that Prussia accept the annexation by France of Belgium and of Luxembourg. Luxembourg at the time belonged to the Netherlands, and King William II of the Netherlands, who badly needed money, was prepared to sell the Duchy to France, but Bismarck swiftly intervened. Bismarck showed the British ambassador a copy of Napoleon's demands, and he put pressure on the King of the Netherlands to refuse to sell the Duchy to France. France was forced to renounce any claim to Luxembourg in the Treaty of London (1867). Napoleon III gained nothing for his efforts but the demilitarization of the Prussian fortress in Luxembourg.[149]

Failure to increase the size of the French armyEdit

Despite his failing health, Napoleon III could see that the Prussian Army, combined with the armies of Bavaria and the other German states, would be a formidable enemy. In 1866, Prussia, with a population of twenty-two million, had been able to mobilize an army of seven hundred thousand men, while France, with population of twenty-six million, had an army of only three hundred eighty-five thousand men, of whom one hundred thousand were in Algeria, Mexico, and Rome.[150] In the autumn of 1867, Napoleon III proposed a form of universal military service, similar to the Prussian system, to increase the size of the French Army, if needed, to one million. His proposal was opposed by many French officers, such as Marechal Randon, who preferred a smaller, more professional army; he said: "This proposal will only give us recruits; it's soldiers we need."[151] It was also strongly opposed by the republican opposition in the French parliament, who denounced the proposal as a militarization of French society. The republican deputy, Èmile Ollivier, who later became Napoleon's prime minister, declared: "The armies of France, which I always considered too large, are now going to be increased to an exorbitant size. Why? What is the necessity? Where is the danger? Who is threatening us? ...If France were to disarm, the Germans would know how to convince their governments to do the same. "[152] Facing almost certain defeat in the parliament, Napoleon III withdrew the proposal. It was replaced in January 1868 by a much more modest project to create a garde mobile, or reserve force, to support the army. [153]

A last search for alliesEdit

Following the defeat of Austria, Napoleon resumed his search for allies against Prussia. In April 1867, he proposed an alliance, defensive and offensive, with Austria. If Austria joined France in a victorious war against Prussia, Napoleon promised that Austria could form a new confederation with the southern states of Germany and could annex Silesia, while France took for its part the left bank of the Rhine River. But the timing of Napoleon's offer was poorly chosen; Austria was in the process of a major internal reform, creating a new state with two capitals, one in Austria and the other in Budapest. Also, the French attempt to install the archduke Maximilian, the brother of the Austrian Emperor, was just coming to its disastrous conclusion; the French troops had just been withdrawn from Mexico in February 1867, and the unfortunate Maximilian would be captured, judged and shot by a firing squad on 19 June. Napoleon III made these offers again in August 1867, on a visit to offer condolences for the death of Maximilan, but the proposal was not received with enthusiasm.[154]

Napoleon III also made one last attempt to persuade Italy to be his ally against Prussia. Italian King Victor-Emmanuel was personally favorable to a better relationship with France, remembering the role that Napoleon III had played in achieving Italian unification, but Italian public opinion was largely hostile to France; on 3 November 1867, French and Papal soldiers had fired upon the Italian patriots of Garibaldi, when he tried to capture Rome. Napoleon presented a proposed treaty of alliance on 4 June 1869, the anniversary of the joint French-Italian victory at Magenta. The Italians responded by demanding that France withdraw its troops who were protecting the Pope, in Rome. Given the opinion of French Catholics, this was a condition Napoleon III could not accept.[155]

While Napoleon III was having no success finding allies, Bismarck signed secret military treaties with the southern German states, who promised to provide troops in the event of a war between Prussia and France. In 1868, Bismarck signed an accord with Russia, giving Russia liberty of action in the Balkans in exchange for neutrality in the event of a war between France and Prussia. This treaty put additional pressure on Austria, which also had interests in the Balkans, not to ally itself with France. Bismarck also reached out to the liberal government of William Gladstone in London, offering to protect the neutrality of Belgium against a French threat. The British Foreign Office under Lord Clarendon mobilized the British Fleet, to dissuade France against any aggressive moves against Belgium. In any war between France and Prussia, France would be entirely alone.[156]

Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian chancellor, thought that French vanity would lead to war; he exploited that vanity in the Ems Dispatch in July 1870 and France took the bait and declared war on Prussia.[157]

Hohenzollern candidacy and the Ems telegramEdit

Main article: Ems Dispatch

In his memoirs written long after the war, Bismarck wrote: "I always considered that a war with France would naturally follow a war against Austria...I was convinced that the gulf which was created over time between the north and the south of Germany could not be better overcome than by a national war against the neighboring people who were aggressive against us. I did not doubt that it was necessary to make a French-German war before the general reorganization of Germany could be realized."[159] As the summer of 1870 approached, pressure mounted on Bismarck to have a war with France as quickly as possible. In Bavaria, the largest of the southern German states, unification with Prussia was being opposed by the Patriot Party, which favored a union of Bavaria with Austria. The secret military treaties between Prussia and the southern German states were due to expire at the end of 1870, and their renewal was not guaranteed. German public opinion was on the side of unification with Prussia, but might not remain so forever.

In France, patriotic sentiment was also growing. On 8 May 1870, French voters had overwhelmingly supported Napoleon III's program in a national plebiscite, with 7,358,000 votes yes against 1,582,000 votes no, an increase of support of two million votes since the legislative elections in 1869. The Emperor was less popular in Paris and the big cities, but highly popular in the French countryside. Napoleon had named a new foreign minister, Antoine Agenor, the Duke de Gramont, the French ambassador to Berlin, who was hostile to Bismarck. The Emperor was weak and ill, but the more extreme Bonapartists were prepared to show their strength against the republicans and monarchists in the parliament.[160]

In July 1870, Bismarck found a cause for a war in an old dynastic dispute. In September 1868, Queen Isabella II of Spain had been overthrown and exiled to France. The new government of Spain considered several candidates, including Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern, a cousin of King William I of Prussia. At the end of 1869 Napoleon III had let it be known to the German king and Chancellor Bismarck that a Prussian king on the throne of Spain would not be acceptable to France. King William had no desire to enter into a war against Napoleon III, with whom he had excellent relations, and he did not pursue the subject further. At the end of May, however, Bismarck wrote to the father of Leopold, asking him to put pressure upon his son to accept the candidacy to be King of Spain. Leopold, solicited by both his father and Bismarck, agreed.

The news of Leopold's candidacy, published 2 July 1870, aroused fury in the French parliament and press. The government was attacked by both the republicans and monarchist opposition, and by the ultra-bonapartistes, for its weakness against Prussia. On 6 July Napoleon III held meeting of his ministers at the chateau of Saint-Cloud and told them that Germany must withdraw the Hohenzollern candidacy or there would be a war. He asked Marshal Leboeuf, the chief of staff of the French army, if the army was prepared for a war against Prussia. Leboeuf responded that the French soldiers had a superior rifle to the Prussian rifle, that the French artillery was commanded by an elite corps of officers, and that the army "would not lack a button on its puttees." He assured the Emperor that the French army could have four hundred thousand men on the Rhine in less than fifteen days.[161]

King William I did not want to be seen as the instigator of the war; he had received messages urging restraint from the Czar, Queen Victoria, and the King of Belgium. On 10 July, he told Leopold's father that his candidacy should be withdrawn. Leopold resisted the idea, but finally agreed on the 11th, and the withdrawal of the candidacy was announced on the 12th, a diplomatic victory for Napoleon. On the evening of the 12th, after meeting with the Empress and with his foreign minister, Gramont, he decided to push his success a little further; he would ask King William to guarantee the Prussian government would never again make such a demand for the Spanish throne. The French Ambassador to Prussia, Count Vincent Benedetti, was sent to the German spa of Ems, where the German King was staying. Benedetti met with the King on 13 July in the park of the chateau. The King told him courteously that he agreed fully with the withdrawal of the Hohenzollern candidacy, but that he could not make promises on behalf of the government for the future. He considered that the matter was closed. As he was instructed by Gramont, Benedetti asked for another meeting with the King to repeat the request, but the King politely, yet firmly, refused. Benedetti returned to Paris and the affair seemed finished. However, Bismarck edited the official dispatch of the meeting to make it appear that both sides had been hostile: "His majesty the King," the dispatch read, "refused to meet again with the French ambassador, and let him know, through an aide-de-camp of service, that His Majesty had nothing more to say to the Ambassador." This version was communicated to governments, and the next day was in the French press.[162]

The Ems telegram had exactly the effect that Bismarck had intended. Once again, public opinion in France was inflamed. "This text produced the effect of a red flag on the Gallic bull," Bismarck later wrote. Gramont, the French foreign minister,declared that he felt "he had just received a slap." The leader of the monarchists in Parliament, Thiers, spoke for moderation, arguing that France had won the diplomatic battle and there was no reason for war, but he was drowned out by cries that he was a traitor and a Prussian. Napoleon's new prime minister, Emile Ollivier, declared that France had done all that it could humanly and honorably do to prevent the war, and that he accepted the responsibility "with a light heart." A crowd of 15-20,000 persons, carrying flags and patriotic banners, marched through the streets of Paris, demanding war. On 19 July 1870 a declaration of war was sent to the Prussian government.[163]

Defeat in the Franco-Prussian WarEdit

File:Place de la Bastille.jpg

When France entered the war there were patriotic demonstrations in the streets of Paris, with crowds singing the Marseillaise and chanting "To Berlin! To Berlin!" But Napoleon was melancholic, telling General Lepic that he expected the war to be "long and difficult", and wondering "Who knows if we'll come back?" He told Maréchal Randon that he felt too old for a military campaign.[164] Despite his ill health, Napoleon decided to go with the army to the front as commander in chief, as he had done during the successful Italian campaign. On 28 July, he departed Saint-Cloud by train for the front. He was accompanied by the 14-year-old Prince Imperial in the uniform of the army, by his military staff, and by a large contingent of chefs and servants in livery. He was pale and visibly in pain. The Empress remained in Paris as the regent, as she had done on other occasions when the Emperor was out of the country.

The mobilization of the French army was chaotic. Two hundred thousand soldiers converged on the German frontier, along a front of 250 kilometers, choking all the roads and railroads for miles. Officers were unable to find their units, and units were unable to find their officers. Von Moltke and the German army, with experience mobilizing in the war against Austria, were able to efficiently move three armies of 518,000 men to a more concentrated front of just 120 kilometers. In addition, the German soldiers were backed by a substantial reserve of the Landwehr, with 340,000 men, and an additional reserve of 400,000 territorial guards. The French army arrived at the frontier equipped with maps of Germany, but without maps of France - where the actual fighting would take place - and without a specific plan of what it was going to do.[165]

On 2 August, Napoleon and the Prince Imperial accompanied the French army as it made a tentative crossing of the German border toward the town of Saarbrücken. The French, accompanied by Napoleon III and the Prince Imperial, won a minor skirmish, and advanced no further. Napoleon III, very ill, was unable to ride his horse, and had to support himself by leaning against a tree. In the meantime, the Germans had assembled a much larger army opposite Alsace and Lorraine than the French had expected or were aware of. On 4 August 1870 the Germans attacked with overwhelming force against a French division in Alsace at the Battle of Wissembourg, forcing it to retreat. On 5 August the Germans defeated another French Army at the Battle of Spicheren in Lorraine. On 6 August, 140,000 Germans attacked 35,000 French soldiers at the Battle of Wörth; the French lost 19,200 soldiers killed, wounded and captured, and were forced to retreat. The French soldiers fought bravely, and French cavalry and infantry attacked the German lines repeatedly, but the Germans had superior logistics, communications, and leadership. The decisive weapon was the new German Krupp six pound field gun, which had a steel barrel and was loaded by the breech, and had a longer range, more rapid rate of fire, and more accuracy than the bronze muzzle-loading French cannons. The Krupp guns caused terrible casualties in the French ranks.[166]

When the news of the French defeats reached Paris on 7 August, it was greeted with disbelief and dismay. Prime Minister Ollivier and the chief of staff of the army, Marshal Leboeuf both resigned. The Empress Eugénie took it upon herself as the Regent to name a new government. She chose General Cousin-Montauban, better known as the count of Palikao, seventy-four years old, the former commander of the French expeditionary force to China, as her new prime minister. The Count of Palikao named Maréchal Francois Achille Bazaine, the commander of the French forces in Lorraine, as the new military commander. Napoleon III proposed returning to Paris, realizing that he was doing no good for the army. The Empress, in charge of the government responded by telegraph, "Don't think of coming back, unless you want to unleash a terrible revolution. They will say you quit the army to flee the danger." The Emperor agreed to remain with the army.[167] With the Empress directing the country, and Bazaine commanding the army, the Emperor no longer had any real role to play. At the front, the Emperor told Marshal Leboeuf, "we've both been dismissed."[168]

On 18 August 1870, the biggest battle of the war, the Battle of Gravelotte took place in Loraine between the Germans and the army of Marshal Bazaine. The Germans suffered twenty thousand casualties and the French twelve thousand, but the Germans emerged as the victor, as Marshal Bazaine's army, with 175,000 soldiers, six divisions of cavalry and five hundred cannon, was trapped inside the fortifications of Metz, unable to move.[169]

Napoleon was at Châlons-sur-Marne with the army of Marshal Patrice de MacMahon. MacMahon, Marshal Bazaine, and the count of Palikao, with the Empress in Paris, all had different ideas on what the army should do next, and the Emperor had to act as a referee among them. The Emperor and MacMahon proposed moving their army closer to Paris to protect the city, but on 17 August Bazaine telegraphed to the Emperor: "I urge you to renounce this idea, which seems to abandon the Army at Metz... Couldn't you make a powerful diversion toward the Prussian corps, which are already exhausted by so many battles? The Empress shares my opinion." Napoleon III wrote back, "I yield to your opinion.".[170] The Emperor sent the Prince Imperial back to Paris for his safety, and went with the weary army in the direction of Metz. The Emperor, riding in an open carriage, was jeered, sworn at and insulted by demoralized soldiers.[169]

The direction of movement of MacMahon's army was supposed to be secret, but it was published in the French press and thus was quickly known to the German general staff. The German commander, Von Moltke, ordered two Prussian armies which were marching toward Paris to turn towards MacMahon's army. On 30 August one corps of MacMahon's army was attacked by the Germans at Beaumont, losing five hundred men and forty cannon. MacMahon, believing he was ahead of the Germans, decided to stop and reorganize his forces at the fortified city of Sedan, close to the Belgian border.[171]

Battle of Sedan and capitulationEdit


MacMahon arrived at Sedan with one hundred thousand soldiers not knowing that two German armies were closing in on the city, one from the west and one from the east, blocking any escape. The Germans arrived on 31 August and by 1 September occupied the heights around Sedan, placed batteries of artillery, and began to shell the French positions below. At five o'clock in the morning on 1 September, MacMahon was seriously wounded in the hip by a German shell. Sedan was soon under bombardment from seven hundred German guns.[172] MacMahon's replacement, General Wimpffen, launched a series of valiant cavalry attacks to try to break the German encirclement, with no success. During the battle and bombardment, the French lost seventeen thousand killed or wounded, and twenty-one thousand captured.

As the German shells rained down on the French positions, Napoleon III wandered aimlessly in the open around the French positions. One officer of his military escort was killed, and two more were wounded. A doctor accompanying him wrote in his notebook, "If this man has not come here to kill himself, I don't know what he has come to do. I have not seen him give an order all morning."[173]

Finally, at one o'clock in the afternoon, Napoleon emerged from his reverie and gave the order for a white flag to be hoisted above the citadel. He then had a message sent to the Prussian King, who was at Sedan with his army: "Monsieur my brother, not being able to die at the head of my troops, nothing remains for me but to place my sword in the hands of Your Majesty."[174]

After the war, when he was accused of having made a "shameful surrender" at Sedan, he wrote: "Some people believe that, by burying ourselves under the ruins of Sedan, we would have better served my name and my dynasty. It's possible. Nay, to hold in my hand the lives of thousands of men and not to make a sign to save them was something that was beyond my heart refused these sinister grandeurs."[175]

At six o'clock in the morning on 2 September, in the uniform of a general, and accompanied by four generals from his staff, Napoleon was taken to the German headquarters at Donchery. He expected to see King William, but instead he was met by Bismarck and the German commander, General Moltke. They dictated the terms of the surrender to Napoleon. Napoleon asked that his army be disarmed and allowed to pass into Belgium, but Bismarck refused. They also asked Napoleon to sign the preliminary documents of a peace treaty, but Napoleon refused, telling them that negotiating the peace would be the responsibility of the French government headed by the regent, the Empress Eugénie . The Emperor was then taken to the Chateau at Bellevue, where he was visited by the Prussian King. Napoleon told the King that he had not wanted the war, but had been forced into it by public opinion. The Prussian king politely agreed. That evening, from the Chateau, he wrote to the Empress Eugénie : "It is impossible for me to say what I have suffered and what I am suffering now...I would have preferred death to a capitulation so disastrous, and yet, under the present circumstances, it was the only way to avoid the butchering of sixty thousand people. If only all my torments were concentrated here! I think of you, our son, and our unhappy country."[176]


The news of the capitulation reached Paris on 3 September, confirming the rumors that were already circulating in the city. When the news was given to the Empress that the Emperor and the army were prisoners, she reacted by shouting at the Emperor's personal aide, "No! An Emperor does not capitulate! He is dead!...They are trying to hide it from me. Why didn't he kill himself! Doesn't he know he has dishonored himself?!".[177] Later, when hostile crowds formed near the palace, and the staff began to flee, the Empress slipped out with one of her entourage and sought sanctuary with her American dentist, who took her to Deauville. From there, on 7 September, she took the yacht of a British official to England. On 4 September, a group of republican deputies, led by Leon Gambetta, gathered at the Hotel de Ville in Paris and proclaimed the return of the Republic, and the creation of a Government of National Defense. The Second Empire of Napoleon III was over.[178]

Captivity, exile and deathEdit

File:III. Napóleon (öreg).jpg

From 5 September 1870 until 19 March 1871, Napoleon III and his entourage of thirteen aides were held in comfortable captivity in a castle at Wilhelmshöhe, near Kassel; King William of Prussia provided a cook and servants, and Napoleon III was permitted to wear civilian clothing, walk in the park and receive visitors. He resumed a close and tender relationship by correspondence with Eugénie . On 30 September, Eugénie traveled incognito to Germany to visit Napoleon.[179]

Napoleon continued to write political tracts and letters, and dreamed of a return to power. Bonapartiste candidates participated in the first elections for the National Assembly on 8 February, but won only five seats. On 1 March, the newly elected assembly officially declared the removal of the Emperor from power, and placed all the blame for the French defeat squarely on him.[179]

On 3 March, the National Assembly accepted the preliminary articles of peace negotiated by Adolphe Thiers and Bismarck no longer had any need to keep Napoleon a captive. Napoleon and Eugénie considered exile in Trieste and Switzerland, but finally decided upon England. Napoleon had not accumulated a large fortune as Emperor; he sold a house he owned in Rome, and Eugénie sold property in Spain and her jewels, and on 19 March they departed Kassel for England, arriving in Dover on 20 March 1871.

Napoleon, Eugénie, their son and their entourage settled at Camden Place,[180] a large three-story country house in the village of Chislehurst, a half hour by train from Central London. On 27 March, he traveled to Windsor castle and was received by Queen Victoria. In April, the Queen visited him at Chislehurst and found him living as he had in Paris, in overheated rooms and smoking cigarette after cigarette.[181]

Napoleon passed his time writing and designing a stove which would be more energy efficient. He visited Exeter and Bath, and spent a holiday by the sea at Torquay. In the summer of 1872, however, his health began to worsen; he was no longer able to ride a horse or ride in a carriage. He consulted two British specialists, Sir William Gull and Sir Henry Thompson, who proposed surgery to break and remove his gallstones. A first operation took place on 2 January 1873, and a second on 6 January. A third operation was scheduled for 9 January, but on the morning of 7 January he became very seriously ill. He spoke his last coherent words to Doctor Henri Conneau, who had accompanied him during his entire career, and had been with him at the Battle of Sedan: "Isn't it true that we weren't cowards at Sedan?" He was given last rites, and died on 9 January 1873.[182]

Napoleon was originally buried at St Mary's, the Catholic Church in Chislehurst. However, after his son, a soldier in the British Army, died in 1879 fighting against the Zulus in South Africa, Eugénie decided to build a monastery and a chapel for the remains of Napoleon III and their son. In 1888, the body of Napoleon III and the Prince Imperial were moved to the Imperial Crypt at St Michael's Abbey, Farnborough, Hampshire, England. When Eugénie died in 1920, she was buried in the same chapel.

It was reported by the British press in 2007 that the French Government was considering the return of his remains to be buried in France, but this was reportedly opposed by the monks of the abbey.[183] A Royal Society of Arts blue plaque was unveiled in 1875 to commemorate Napoleon at 1c King Street in London's St James's district.[184]

Personal lifeEdit

File:Marguerite Bellanger par Paul Hadol.jpg

Louis Napoleon has a historical reputation as a womanizer, yet he referred to his behaviour in the following manner: "It is usually the man who attacks. As for me, I defend myself, and I often capitulate."[185] He had many mistresses. During his reign, it was the task of Count Felix Bacciochi, his social secretary, to arrange for trysts and to procure women for the emperor's favours. His affairs were not trivial sideshows: they distracted him from governing, affected his relationship with the empress, and diminished him in the views of the other European courts.[186] Among his numerous love affairs and mistresses were:[187]

  • Mathilde Bonaparte, his cousin and fiancee
  • Maria Anna Schiess (1812–80), of Allensbach (Lake Constance, Germany), mother of his son Bonaventur Karrer (1839–1921)[188]
  • Alexandrine Éléonore Vergeot, laundress at the prison at Ham, mother of his sons Alexandre Louis Eugène and Louis Ernest Alexandre[189]
  • Elisa Rachel Felix, the "most famous actress in Europe"
  • Harriet Howard (1823–65) wealthy and a major financial backer
  • Virginia Oldoini, Countess di Castiglione (22 March 1837 – 28 November 1899) Spy, artist and famous beauty, sent by Camillo Cavour to influence the Emperor's politics
  • Marie-Anne Waleska, a possible mistress, who was the wife of Count Alexandre Joseph Count Colonna-Walewski, his relative and foreign minister
  • Justine Marie Le Boeuf, also known as Marguerite Bellanger, actress and acrobatic dancer. Bellanger was falsely rumoured to be the illegitimate daughter of a hangman, and was the most universally loathed of the mistresses, though perhaps his favorite[190]
  • Countess Louise de Mercy-Argenteau (1837–90), likely a platonic relationship, author of The Last Love of an Emperor, her reminiscences of her association with the emperor.

His wife, Eugénie, resisted his advances prior to marriage. She was coached by her mother and her friend, Prosper Mérimée. "What is the road to your heart?" Napoleon demanded to know. "Through the chapel, Sire", she purportedly answered.[185] Yet, after marriage, it took not long for him to stray as Eugénie found sex with him "disgusting".[185] It is doubtful that she allowed further approaches by her husband once she had given him an heir.[186]Template:Who

By his late forties, Napoleon started to suffer from numerous medical ailments, including kidney disease, bladder stones, chronic bladder and prostate infections, arthritis, gout, obesity, and the chronic effects of smoking. In 1856, Dr. Robert Ferguson, a consultant called from London, diagnosed a "nervous exhaustion" that had a "debilitating impact upon sexual ... performance"[187] and reported this also to the British government.[186]


With Prosper Mérimée, Napoleon III continued to seek the preservation of numerous mediaeval buildings in France, which had been left disregarded since the French revolution (a project Mérimée had begun during the July Monarchy). With Viollet-le-Duc acting as chief architect, many buildings were saved, including some of the most famous in France: Notre Dame Cathedral, Mont Saint-Michel, Carcassonne, Vézelay Abbey, Pierrefonds, and Roquetaillade castle.

Napoleon III also directed the building of the French railway network, which greatly contributed to the development of the coal mining and steel industry in France, thereby radically changing the nature of the French economy, which entered the modern age of large-scale capitalism.[191] The French economy, the second largest in the world at the time (behind the British economy), experienced a very strong growth during the reign of Napoleon III. Names such as steel tycoon Eugène Schneider or banking mogul James de Rothschild are symbols of the period. Two of France's largest banks, Société Générale and Crédit Lyonnais, still in existence today, were founded during that period. The French stock market also expanded prodigiously, with many coal mining and steel companies issuing stocks. Historians credit Napoleon chiefly for supporting the railways, but not otherwise building the economy.[192]

Napoleon's military pressure and Russian mistakes, culminating in the Crimean War, dealt a fatal blow to the Concert of Europe. It was based on stability and balance of powers, whereas Napoleon attempted to rearrange the world map to France's favour even when it involved radical and potentially revolutionary changes in politics. A 12-pound cannon designed by France is commonly referred to as a Napoleon cannon or 12-pounder Napoleon in his honour.

The historical reputation of Napoleon III is far below that of his uncle. Victor Hugo portrayed him as "Napoleon the Small" (Napoléon le Petit), a mere mediocrity, in contrast with Napoleon I "The Great", presented as a military and administrative genius. In France, such arch-opposition from the age's central literary figure, whose attacks on Napoleon III were obsessive and powerful, made it impossible for a very long time to assess his reign objectively. Karl Marx, in The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, famously mocked Napoleon III by saying "Hegel remarks somewhere that all great world-historical facts and personages appear, so to speak, twice. He forgot to add: the first time as tragedy, the second time as farce." Napoleon III has often been seen as an authoritarian but ineffectual leader who brought France into dubious, and ultimately disastrous, foreign military adventures.[193]

Historians have also emphasized his attention to the fate of the working classes and poor people. His book Extinction du paupérisme ("Extinction of pauperism"), which he wrote while imprisoned at the Fort of Ham in 1844, contributed greatly to his popularity among the working classes and thus his election in 1848. Throughout his reign the emperor worked to alleviate the sufferings of the poor, on occasion breaching the 19th-century economic orthodoxy of complete laissez-faire and using state resources or interfering in the market. Among other things, the Emperor granted the right to strike to French workers in 1864, despite intense opposition from corporate lobbies. Marxist sociologist Göran Therborn has characterized the reign of Napoleon III as the "first modern bourgeois regime", one which combined a movement of mass support with bourgeois rule, albeit through authoritarian statist means.[194] According to Therborn, such a form of rule, ossified upon the point of crisis, proves fatal to such regimes once major external crises emerge.[195]

In filmEdit

Titles, styles, honours and armsEdit

Royal styles of
Napoleon III of France
Coat of Arms Second French Empire (1852–1870)-2.svg
Reference style His Imperial Majesty
Spoken style Your Imperial Majesty
Alternative style My Lord
  • 20 April 1808 – 9 July 1810: His Imperial and Royal Highness Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, Prince of Holland
  • 20 April 1808 – 25 July 1846: His Imperial Highness Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, Prince Imperial of France
  • 20 December 1848 – 2 December 1852: His Excellency Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, President of the French Republic ("Le Prince-President")
  • 2 December 1852 – 4 September 1870: His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of the French
  • 4 September 1870 – 9 January 1873: His Imperial Majesty the former Emperor of the French

His full title as Emperor was: His Imperial Majesty Napoleon the Third, By the Grace of God and the will of the Nation, Emperor of the French.[196]


Speculation about his paternity was a favorite topic of his detractors,[186] as his parents were estranged and his mother Hortense de Beauharnais was known to have multiple lovers; however, the parents met briefly between 23 June and 6 July 1807, nine and a half months prior to his birth. Additionally, Article 312 of the Napoleonic Code stated (and still states) that the father of any child born within wedlock is the mother's husband. The meeting prior to his birth meant that there was no "impossibility" of conception, and Article 312 designated Louis as the father of the future Napoleon III.[197]

However, in 2014 geneticist Gérard Lucotte carried out DNA tests on skin and hair samples from both Napoleon I and Napoleon III, with the blessing of their descendants. In April 2014, he unveiled the results: the haplotype of the Y chromosomes differed, meaning that according to his results Napoleon III was not genetically the paternal nephew of Napoleon I. In an article on the subject, historian Eric Anceau remarked that Lucotte's findings were not unanimously accepted by scientists and stated that further testing was required. Anceau nevertheless put forward three possibilities if the findings are confirmed: the infidelity of Hortense; the infidelity of Letizia Ramolino, the mother of Napoleon I and his brother Louis (meaning they were in fact half-brothers with different fathers); or the infidelity of both women.[198] It should be noted that Hortense was the adopted daughter of Napoleon I and the biological daughter of Joséphine de Beauharnais (from Joséphine's marriage to Alexandre de Beauharnais), thus Napoleon III can in any case be considered to have been related to Napoleon I from a legal point-of-view (beyond Article 312 of the Napoleonic Code) and genetically to the imperial family on his maternal side.


Writings by Napoleon IIIEdit

  • Les Idees Napoleoniennes – an outline of Napoleon III's opinion of the optimal course for France, written before he became Emperor.
  • History of Julius Caesar, a historical work he wrote during his reign. He drew an analogy between the politics of Julius Caesar and his own, as well as those of his uncle.
  • Napoleon III wrote a number of articles on military matters (artillery), scientific issues (electromagnetism, pro and con of beet versus cane sugar), historical topics (The Stuart kings of Scotland), and on the feasibility of the Nicaragua canal. His pamphlet On the Extinction of Pauperism helped his political advancement.

See alsoEdit


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Sources and bibliographyEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Baguley, David. Napoleon III and His Regime: An Extravaganza (2000)
  • Bury J. P.T. Napoleon III and the Second Empire (1964).
  • Case Lynn M. French Opinion on War and Diplomacy during the Second Empire (1954)
  • Corley, T. A. B. Democratic Despot: A Life of Napoleon III (1961) online edition
  • Cunningham; Michele. Mexico and the Foreign Policy of Napoleon III (Palgrave, 2001) online edition
  • Duff, David. Eugénie and Napoleon III (Collins, 1978)
  • Gooch, Brison D., ed. Napoleon III – Man of Destiny: Enlightened Statesman or Proto-Fascist?, (1966) excerpt
  • Gooch, Brison D., ed. The Reign of Napoleon III, (1969)
  • Pinkney, David H. "Napoleon III's Transformation of Paris: The Origins and Development of the Idea," Journal of Modern History (1955) 27#2 pp. 125–134 in JSTOR
  • Pinkney, David H. Napoleon III and the Rebuilding of Paris (Princeton University Press, 1958) ISBN 0-691-00768-3.
  • Price, Roger. "Napoleon III: 'hero' or 'grotesque mediocrity'?" History Review (2003) pp 14+
  • Price, Roger. Napoleon III and the Second Empire (Routledge, 1997)
  • Price, Roger. The French Second Empire: an anatomy of political power (Cambridge University Press, 2001) online edition
  • Wawro, Geoffrey. The Franco-Prussian War: The German Conquest of France in 1870–1871(2005)
  • Wetzel, David A Duel of Giants: Bismarck, Napoleon III, and the Origins of the Franco-Prussian War (University of Wisconsin Press, 2001)
  • Wetzel, David. A Duel of Nations: Germany, France, and the Diplomacy of the War of 1870–1871 (University of Wisconsin Press; 2012) 310 pages
  • Wittmann, Heiner. Napoleon III. Macht und Kunst(Reihe Dialoghi/dialogues. Literatur und Kultur Italiens und Frankreichs. Hrsg. v. Dirk Hoeges, Band 17, Verlag Peter Lang, Frankfurt, Berlin, Bern u.a., 2013).
  • Zeldin, Theodore. The Political System of Napoleon III (Oxford University Press, 1958).


  • Campbell, Stuart L. The Second Empire Revisited: A Study in French Historiography (1978)
  • Spitzer, Alan B. "The Good Napoleon III," French Historical Studies (1962) 2#3 pp. 308–329 in JSTOR; praises his domestic policies

Primary sourcesEdit

  • T. W. Evans, Memoirs of the Second French Empire, (New York, 1905)
  • Marie-Clotilde-Elisabeth Louise de Riquet, comtesse de Mercy-Argenteau, The Last Love of an Emperor: reminiscences of the Comtesse Louise de Mercy-Argenteau, née Princesse de Caraman-Chimay, describing her association with the Emperor Napoleon III and the social and political part she played at the close of the Second Empire (Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & Co., 1926).

External linksEdit

Template:Wikiquote Template:Wikisource1911Enc

Napoleon III
Political offices
Preceded by
Louis-Eugène Cavaignac
President of the French Second Republic
20 December 1848 – 2 December 1852
became Emperor
Head of State of France
20 December 1848 – 4 September 1870
Succeeded by
Louis Jules Trochu
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis-Philippe of France
as King of the French
Emperor of the French
2 December 1852 – 4 September 1870
Empire dissolved
Preceded by
Co-Prince of Andorra
20 December 1848 – 4 September 1870
Succeeded by
Adolphe Thiers

Template:Bonaparte family Template:Heads of state of France Template:Monarchs of France Template:French Pretenders