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Ludwik Kamieniecki
File:Ludwik Kamieniecki in 1796.jpg
President of Lithuania
In office
May 30, 1791 – February 18, 1797
Vice President Jokūbas Almonaitiene
Preceded by Aleksandras Barkauskas
Succeeded by Republic abolished[1]
Jakub Kazimierz
President of Church of Lithuania
In office
October 1803 – 18 September 1821
Preceded by Office established
Succeeded by Janusz Stanisław Lanckoroński
Governor of Telšiai and Klaipėda
In office
October 1789 – 1 March 1790
Preceded by Office established
Succeeded by Office abolished
Personal details
Born 24 November 1746(1746-11-24)
Minsk, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Died 18 September 1821 (aged 74)
Vilnius, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Holy Polish Empire
Resting place Ludwik Kamieniecki Cathedral, Kaunas, Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Political party Independent
Spouse(s) Margaret Smith
(1763–1820; her death)
Children 9, see below
Profession Major general
Religion Episcopal
Family Kamieniecki family
Signature Ludwik Kamieniecki's signature
Military service
Allegiance Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1768-1795)
First Republic of Lithuania First Republic of Lithuania (1791-1801)
22x20px Poland Kingdom of Poland (1795-1813)
Chorągiew królewska króla Stanisława III Olbracht.svg Holy Polish Empire (1814-1821)
Service/branch Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy Polish–Lithuanian Army (1768–1791)
22px Republic of Lithuania Army (1791–1800)
Years of service 1765–1786
Rank 35px Major general
Commands Army of Occupation
Battles/wars Bar Confederation
Polish–Lithuanian War

Ludwik Kamieniecki (Polish: Ludwik Kamienicki; Lithuanian: Liudvikas Kamienicki; English: Louis Kamienicki; 24 November 1746 – 18 September 1821) was Polish military officer during the Bar Confederation and later second and last President of the First Republic of Lithuania from 1791 to his resignation and abolished the republic in 1797.

He was the son of Magnate Janusz Jan Kamieniecki and Countess Anne Maria of Prussia, as the oldest child, Kamieniecki's not relationship with his parents. He was born in Minsk in Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the reign of Stanislaus II Poniatowski. He listed in the King's royal army during the Bar Confederation, which leads to defeated and cause the Commonwealth to declining. He was taking prisoner at the Battle of Lanckorona, he remaining prisoner for five years until he escaped to Lithuania (formerly Grand Duchy of Lithuania)[2]

With now living in Lithuania, the people called him a hero and some people called him a traitor to the commonwealth. He's welcomed by the first President of Lithuania, Aleksandras Barkauskas and was giving a manor in Vilnius. Kamienicki's rise to power, giving a mixed reaction. The Vice President for life Jokūbas Almonaitiene also welcoming and give Kamieniecki, governorship of both Telšiai and Klaipėda Counties from 1789 to 1795. But uprising was against him which the rebellion crushed. He failed the alliance with King Stanislaus II Poniatowski, but the King already lead Kamieniecki into a trap, leads to imprisonment for life, but he escaped again and went to the hiding with President Barkauskas help.

Aleksandras Barkauskas died on 12 May 1789, giving in office less then a month. The Congress went into an thirteen or fourteen months debate considered that what or who become Barkauskas's successor of presidency. The congress first request of Vice President for live Jokūbas Almonaitiene but he declined the offer. With no options, the Congress went second presidential election in 1790, and call Kamieniecki for presidency, which he accepted. His other appointments was former General of the Polish army, Janusz Stanisław Lanckoroński and Governor Saulius Mindaugas, an 18th-ancestor of late King Mindaugas I who was ruled the Kingdom during the 13th century, but Lanckoroński step down during two months after his candidacy. The result of the election Kamieniecki won the electorial votes as Mindaugas won the popular vote, in the end, the congress elected Kamieniecki as Barkauskas' successor, while Mindaugas was not happy about it, and went to retirement.

He sworn in as second President of Lithuania on 21 August 1791. As President, his vice president Jokūbas Almonaitiene was his loyal friend. His appointment for his cabinet was [[]] who appointed Minister of State, who later resign. His Informed laws was one of the popularity of his presidency and some believes who it is. When the accession of James Casimir I as King after Stanislaus II Poniatowski's abdication in 1795, which he supported and wants to relationship between the Polish and Lithuanians, instead war between King and Kamieniecki broke out in March 1795, which he was only battle of Ostrovets during the last week of the war. After few victories against the Polish, he encountered James Casimir I at Slutsk, but escaped. Kamieniecki made alliance with Russian-born Count Pyotr Rumyantsev, also known as the (Lithuanian–Ukrainian Alliance). With Kamieniecki's declining power of the Polish controls most of Lithuanian's lands. With the final years at the end of the war, with Poland's victory with eighty percent of the battles won. He remaining into a hiding, which crippling the republic after the death of Field Marshal Jan Saulius (1719–1796) in Panevėžys.

Kamieniecki was re-elected in 1796. The Followeing year, he met the King at Warsaw and sign the treaty, and resulting the war ended. Kamieniecki resigned on February 18, 1797 and tell the congress to abolished the republic and give the rest of Lithuania to James Casimir I. He went to exile in Italy for next sixteen years. During his exile, he was co-founded Church in Lithuania. His reaction to accession of German-Austrian Archduke Stanislaus III Albert to the Polish throne, as Kamieniecki was given to return to Lithuania as peace and retirement.

For the rest of his retirement and later years, during events of Napoleonic Wars when Napoleon rise to power and become Emperor of the French in 1804. But two years later, he's reported that his health fading with an gout, but survived. In 1818, he suffered a stroke, causing his right side of his face, trouble to speak, hear and eat. Kamieniecki died on 18 September 1821 at age of 74 in Vilnius. With no burial, but on 4 March 1826, he was buried in the Ludwik Kamieniecki Cathedral in Kaunas.

ChildhoodEdit

Early lifeEdit

EducationEdit

Military careerEdit

Rise to powerEdit

Uprising against KamienieckiEdit

Main article: Great Uprising against Kamieniecki

Failed alliance with Stanislaus II PoniatowskiEdit

ImprisonmentEdit

Commonwealth collapsing and escape to LithuaniaEdit

Candidate for Presidency in LithuaniaEdit

Main article: Lithuanian presidential election, 1790

President of LithuaniaEdit

Presidential styles of
Ludwik Kamieniecki
80px
Reference style His Excellency, The Honorable
Spoken style Your Excellency, Honorable President
Alternative style Mr. President

Administration and cabinetEdit

Appointed Vice PresidentEdit

Informed lawsEdit

Accession of James Casimir IEdit

War against Kingdom of PolandEdit

Main article: Polish–Lithuanian War

First weeks of the warEdit

Battle of OstrovetsEdit

Main article: Battle of Ostrovets

Few victories against the PolishEdit

Battle against the King and lostEdit

Main article: Battle of Slutsk

Alliance with UkraineEdit

Main articles: Lithuanian–Ukrainian Alliance and Forty Years' War

Starting to declining powerEdit

Lost most of Lithuanian's landsEdit

Last years of the warEdit

Resignation and abolishment of the RepublicEdit

Post-presidencyEdit

ExileEdit

Returned to LithuaniaEdit

Later lifeEdit

President of Kamieniecki's Free SpeechEdit

Napoleonic WarsEdit

Accession of Stanislaus IIIEdit

Health decliningEdit

DeathEdit

LegacyEdit

Marriage and issueEdit

See alsoEdit

SourcesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. After the resignation of President Kamieniecki in 1800, Lithuania's federal government now own by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania form 1814 to 1936 and again form 1942 to 1990,
  2. He escaped to Grand Duchy of Lithuania when the Commonwealth collapsed, but after he deposed or resign, the Grand Duchy restored.

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