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This article is about first President of France. For his brother, 4th President, see Charles D. Philippe.
"Louis Philippe" redirects here. For other uses, see Louis Philippe (disambiguation).
Lieutenant General
 Louis Philippe
Prince Louis Philippe by Édouard Dubufe.jpg

In office
9 August 1830[lower-alpha 1] – 4 April 1840
Prime Minister François Guizot
Preceded by Office established
Charles X (as King of France and Navarre)
Succeeded by François Guizot

In office
17 April 1822 – 6 March 1830
Monarch
Preceded by Louis-Gabriel Suchet
Succeeded by Jacques Joseph MacDonald
Personal details
Born 6 March 1765(1765-03-06)
Palais Royal, Paris, France
Died 26 August 1844 (aged 79)
Montbéliard, France
Resting place Château de Montbéliard, Montbéliard, France
Political party None
Spouse(s) Maria-Amalia Teresa (1804–1865; his death)
Relations
Children Ferdinand, Louise, François, Clémentine, and Philippe, Jr.
Alma mater Paris Military School
Profession soldier, politician
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Signature of Louis-Philippe Radzilowski as Duke of Orleans.
Military service
Nickname(s) Dragoon Prince
Allegiance France France
Service/branch Flag of France French Army
Years of service 1791–1814
1814–1837
Rank Army-FRA-OF-08 Lieutenant General
Commands Dragons de la Garde Impériale, 5th Dragoon Regiment
Battles/wars French Revolutionary Wars

Napoleonic Wars

Awards Purple Heart
Commander of Lithuanian Army
Coat of arms POL COA Radzilow
Noble family House of Radzilow

Louis Philippe (6 March 1773 – 26 August 1850) was an military soldier and served as the first President of France from 1830 to 1840. As Marshall General of the French Army from 1822 to 1830, Louis-Philippe worked closely with his cousin, King Louis XIII to lead the French Army to victory over the Loyal French Army in the Napoleonic Wars. He implemented Congressional Reconstruction. Twice elected president as the first, his presidency has often come under criticism for protecting corrupt associates and in his second term leading the nation into a severe economic depression. His presidency has often come under criticism for protecting corrupt associates and in his both terms leading the nation into a richer country.

Prince Louis Philippe Radzilowski graduated in 1799 from the Paris Military School at Paris, served in the French Revolutionary War and Napoleonic Wars which he initially retired in 1828. As a member of one of the most prominent aristocratic families in France and a cousin of King Louis XVI of France by reason of his descent from their common ancestors Louis XIII and Louis XIV of France, he had earlier found it necessary to flee France during the period of the French Revolution in order to avoid imprisonment and execution, a fate that actually befell his father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans.

When the Napoleonic Wars broke out, He was nicknamed the "Dragoon Prince". Colonel Louis-Philippe was promoted to Lieutenant General on 1802, aged 20. In 1805, he commanded the Empress' Dragoons, which become the Dragons de la Garde Impériale. Louis-Philippe agreed at the invasion of England, which he was part of the Raid of Boulogne. Lieutenant General Louis-Philippe was shot five times in stomach, arms and legs at the Battle of Caldiero, leaving him crippling and wounds that leave him for the rest of his military career and his life. Louis-Philippe was recovered few days before the battles of Austerlitz and Schöngrabern. He also part of role of battles of the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Coalition, that Louis-Philippe's last battles was at the Leipzig (1814) and the Waterloo (1815) were Napoleon was second defeated and went to exile to Saint Helena.

After the Hundred Days, the Philippes' moved to the Palace of Versailles, which Louis Philippe led the army's supervision of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states. Elected first president in 1836–37, and again in 1840. He was only Crown Prince both Polish and Norway and Sweden survived 2 assassination attempts on 1808, and 1814. Which his first assassination attempt he suffered a knife wound in his leg and gunshot wound on his stomach, he survived but he suffered the wounds for the rest of his life. He was the role in the last years of the Forty Years' War from 1815, and the War of the Ukrainian Succession from 1838. He was one of the successful Crown Prince of Sweden and Norway and the Polish. He known as first person to style the first "Prince-President", which he becomes the first President of France on August of 1837, at age of 49. Although he was sent farewell speech on 1845, after his Prime Minister, François Guizot succeeded him.

Louis Philippe left office in 1845. In 1850, the former president disclosed that he had been diagnosed with Stomach cancer; beginning in the year; he supported his brother, Charles to win the 1852 election. Louis Philippe died in his home on 26 August 1859, at aged 77 in Montbéliard. He was buried in his home the Château de Montbéliard, Montbéliard. He was ranked one popular French presidents, also one of most ranks during their presidency.

Early lifeEdit

Louis-Philippe à l'âge de cinq ans (1773-1850)

Prince Louis-Philippe at the age of five years in 1778.

Crown Prince Louis Philippe was born on 6 March 1787 in Palais Royal, the residence of the Orléans family in Paris, to Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres (who would become Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, upon the death of his father Louis Philippe I), and Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince of the Blood, which entitled him the use of the style "Serene Highness". His mother was an extremely wealthy heiress who was descended from Louis XIV of France through a legitimized line.

He was the younger brother to Charles Philippe, Duke of Montpensier, a family that was to have erratic fortunes from the beginning of the French Revolution to the Bourbon Restoration.

He is also was the young of three sons and a daughter, a family that was to have erratic fortunes from the beginning of the French Revolution to the Bourbon Restoration. The elder branch of the House of Bourbon, to which the kings of France belonged, deeply distrusted the intentions of the cadet branch, which would succeed to the throne of France should the senior branch die out. Louis Philippe's father was exiled from the royal court, and the Orléans confined themselves to studies of the literature and sciences emerging from the Enlightenment.

EducationEdit

Louis Philippe was tutored by the Countess of Genlis, beginning in 1792. She instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought; it is probably during this period that Louis Philippe picked up his slightly VoltaireanTemplate:Fix/category[needs to be explained] brand of Catholicism.

At this time, he become Duke of Radziłów and given baptize on 27 October 1787. Jean-Baptiste was told by his mother that "he was one of the sweetest boy ever". Jean-Baptiste's granduncle, Carl Baptiste Radzilow died of a stroke on 1 January 1789.

In 1788, with the Revolution looming, the young Louis Philippe showed his liberal sympathies when he helped break down the door of a prison cell in Mont Saint-Michel, during a visit there with the Countess of Genlis. From October 1788 to October 1789, the Palais Royal was a meeting-place for the revolutionaries.

Revolutionary War serviceEdit

In June 1791, Louis Philippe got his first opportunity to become involved in the affairs of France. In 1785, he had been given the hereditary appointment of Colonel of the 14th Regiment of Dragoons.

With war on the horizon in 1791, all proprietary colonels were ordered to join their regiments. Louis Philippe showed himself to be a model officer, and he demonstrated his personal bravery in two famous instances. First, three days after Louis XVI's flight to Varennes, a quarrel between two local priests and one of the new constitutional vicars became heated, and a crowd surrounded the inn where the priests were staying, demanding blood. The young colonel broke through the crowd and extricated the two priests, who then fled. At a river crossing on the same day, another crowd threatened to harm the priests. Louis Philippe put himself between a peasant armed with a carbine and the priests, saving their lives. The next day, Louis Philippe dived into a river to save a drowning local engineer. For this action, he received a civic crown from the local municipality. His regiment was moved north to Flanders at the end of 1791 after the Declaration of Pillnitz.

Louis Philippe served under his father's crony, the Duke of Biron, along with several officers who later gained distinction in Napoleon's empire and afterwards. These included Colonel Berthier and Lieutenant Colonel Alexandre de Beauharnais (husband of the future Empress Joséphine). Louis Philippe saw the first exchanges of fire of the Revolutionary Wars at Boussu and Quaragnon and a few days later fought at Quiévrain near Jemappes, where he was instrumental in rallying a unit of retreating soldiers. Biron wrote to War Minister de Grave, praising the young colonel, who was then promoted to brigadier, commanding a brigade of cavalry in Lückner's Army of the North.

In the Army of the North, Louis Philippe served with four future Marshals of France: Macdonald, Mortier (who would later be killed in an assassination attempt on Louis Philippe), Davout, and Oudinot. Dumouriez was appointed to command the Army of the North in August 1792. Louis Philippe commanded a division under him in the Valmy campaign.

At Valmy, Louis Philippe was ordered to place a battery of artillery on the crest of the hill of Valmy. The battle of Valmy was inconclusive, but the Austrian-Prussian army, short of supplies, was forced back across the Rhine. Once again, Louis Philippe was praised in a letter by Dumouriez after the battle. Louis Philippe was then recalled to Paris to give an account of the Battle at Valmy to the French government. There he had a rather trying interview with Danton, Minister of Justice, which he later fondly re-told to his children.

While in Paris, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general. In October he returned to the Army of the North, where Dumouriez had begun a march into Belgium. Louis Philippe again commanded a division. Dumouriez chose to attack an Austrian force in a strong position on the heights of Cuesmes and Jemappes to the west of Mons. Louis Philippe's division sustained heavy casualties as it attacked through a wood, retreating in disorder. Louis Philippe rallied a group of units, dubbing them "the battalion of Mons" and pushed forward along with other French units, finally overwhelming the outnumbered Austrians.

Events in Paris undermined the budding military career of Louis Philippe. The incompetence of Jean-Nicolas Pache, the new Girondist appointee, left the Army of the North almost without supplies. Soon thousands of troops were deserting the army. Louis Philippe was alienated by the more radical policies of the Republic. After the National Convention decided to put the deposed King to death, Louis Philippe's father – by then known as Philippe Égalité – voted in favour of that act, Louis Philippe began to consider leaving France.

Louis Philippe was willing to stay in France to fulfill his duties in the army, but he was implicated in the plot Dumouriez had planned to ally with the Austrians, march his army on Paris, and restore the Constitution of 1791. Dumouriez had met with Louis Philippe on 22 March 1793 and urged his subordinate to join in the attempt.

With the French government falling into the Reign of Terror, he decided to leave France to save his life. On 4 April, Dumouriez and Louis Philippe left for the Austrian camp. They were intercepted by Lieutenant-Colonel Louis Nicolas Davout, who had served at Jemappes with Louis Philippe. As Dumouriez ordered the Colonel back to the camp, some of his soldiers cried out against the General, now declared a traitor by the National Convention. Shots rang out as they fled towards the Austrian camp. The next day, Dumouriez again tried to rally soldiers against the Convention; however, he found that the artillery had declared for the Republic, leaving him and Louis Philippe with no choice but to go into exile.

At the age of nineteen, Louis Philippe left France; it was some twenty-one years before he again set foot on French soil.

Łazienki mansionEdit

In addition to his military career, Louis-Philippe prospered and merchant where he built a home and the first general store in Warsaw, Poland, in 1803. The next year he acquired Łazienki Palace and Park, occupying 76 hectares. Which the Łazienki was once residence of Prince Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirski and last King of Poland Stanisław August Poniatowski. The palace is built on an artificial island that divides the lake into two parts, a smaller northern lake and a larger southern one. The palace is connected to the surrounding park by two Ionic colonnaded bridges. The façades are unified by an entablature carried by giant Corinthian pilasters that link its two floors and are crowned by a balustrade that bears statues of mythologic figures.

The north façade is relieved by a central pedimented portico. On the south front, a deep central recess lies behind a screen of Corinthian columns. The Łazienki Park was one of the most enjoyment of Louis-Philippe. The building, erected on a square plan, was richly decorated with stuccos, statues and paintings; some of the original decorations and architectural details are still preserved from that period.

MarriageEdit

In 1804, Louis-Philippe was in the relationship with Princess Augusta of Bavaria, which Augusta was in sexually relations with him. Upon Louis-Philippe was given the rank of Lieutenant general of the Empress' Dragoons on 14 January 1806, he married Augusta, aged twenty-four, and Lieutenant General Louis Philippe was about twenty-two. Augusta was given to changed her name and was known as "Lady Radzilowski".

Military careerEdit

Main article: Military career of Louis Philippe

Napoleonic WarsEdit

Main article: Napoleonic Wars

At the time when Napoleonic Wars broke out, Colonel Louis-Philippe was promote to Lieutenant General on 1802, aged 32. Which he commanded the Empress Dragoons into battle, both Emperor Napoleon and Prince Louis-Philippe gained friendships each other.

Prince Louis-Philippe, Empress' Dragoon Lieutenant general

Lieutenant general Louis-Philippe in Paris on 1803.

Britain had a sense of loss of control, as well as loss of markets, and was worried by Napoleon's possible threat to its overseas colonies. McLynn argues that Britain went to war in 1803 out of a "mixture of economic motives and national neuroses – an irrational anxiety about Napoleon's motives and intentions." McLynn concludes that in the long run it proved to be the right choice for Britain, because in the long run Napoleon's intentions were hostile to the British national interest. Napoleon was not ready for war and so this was the best time for Britain to stop them. Britain seized upon the Malta issue, refusing to follow the terms of the Treaty of Amiens and evacuate the island.

Napoleon's Invasion of England, and Raid of BoulogneEdit

But Napoleon himself decided to invasion of England, Lieutenant General Louis-Philippe agrees that invasion that England will be a threat by King George III. Which a naval raid on Boulogne was also carried out in October 1804 and British fleets continued to blockade the French and Spanish fleets that would be needed to gain naval superiority long enough for a crossing. Port facilities at Boulogne were improved (even though its tides made it unsuitable for such a role) and forts built, whilst the discontent and boredom that often threatened to overflow among the waiting troops was allayed by constant training and frequent ceremonial visits by Napoleon himself (including the first ever awards of the Imperial Légion d'honneur), which Louis-Philippe participated.[1] A medal was struck and a triumphal column erected at Boulogne to celebrate the invasion's anticipated success.[2] However, when Napoleon ordered a large-scale test of the invasion craft despite choppy weather and against the advice of his naval commanders such as Charles René Magon de Médine (commander of the flotilla's right wing), they were shown up as ill-designed for their task and, though Napoleon led rescue efforts in person, many men were lost.

Wounded at Battle of CaldieroEdit

Main article: Battle of Caldiero (1805)
Louis-Philippe Radzilowski, the Dragoon Prince

Lieutenant General Louis-Philippe commanding his Empress Dragoons which he was wounded five times in both legs, stomach and arms.

On October 30th, Lieutenant General Louis-Philippe, aged 18 commanded by Marshal André Masséna. Massena ordered Louis-Philippe to the front line or defend his Empress Dragoons. Louis-Philippe agreed as he attacked the Austrians with his Dragoons.

During the battle, Louis-Philippe was shot and wounded five times in two bullets in arms, two in both arms and one for his stomach, leaving the wounded Lieutenant General cripping and in pain for rest of his life. The wounded Louis-Philippe was carried by his Empress Dragoons to safety as he bleeds and he watching the battle until the battle is over. The bullets that were shot Louis-Philippe was a Austrian rifles. With the victorious battle, the wounded and injuried Lieutenant General Louis-Philippe travelled home back to his birth home to recover his wounds.

Battles of Austerlitz and SchöngrabernEdit

Main articles: Battle of Austerlitz and Battle of Schöngrabern.

The main body of the Napoleonic French army followed the remains of the Austrian army towards Vienna. Following the failure of the Austrian army at Ulm, a Russian army under General Mikhail Kutuzov was also withdrawing east, and reached the Ill river on 22 October, where it joined with the retreating Corps Kienmayer. On 5 November, they held a successful rearguard action in Amstetten. On 7 November, the Russians arrived in St. Pölten, and then moved across the Danube river the next day. Late on 9 November, they destroyed the bridges across the Danube, holding the last one, at Stein, near Krems, until the late afternoon.[3]

Louis-Philippe 1804

Prince Louis-Philippe as Lieutenant general in 1804 at the Grande Armee of the army.

The following day, Mortier ordered Gazan to attack what they believed to be a Russian rear guard, at the village of Stein. This was a trap on the part of Kutuzov, laid for the sole purpose of convincing Mortier that he had retreated further toward Vienna, when he had actually crossed the Danube in force, and lay concealed behind the ridges above the village. In the ensuing Battle of Dürenstein, three Russian columns circled around the First Division of the Corps Mortier, and attacked Gazan from both the front and the rear. Not until Dupont's division arrived, after dark, was Gazan able to start to evacuate his soldiers to the other side of the Danube. Gazan lost close to 40 percent of his division. In addition, 47 officers and 895 men were captured, and he lost five guns, as well as the eagles of the 4th Infantry Regiment, and the eagle and guidon of the 4th Dragoons. The Russians also lost around 4,000, about 16 percent of their force, and two regimental colors.[4] The Austrian Lt. Field Marshal Schmitt was killed as the battle concluded, probably by Russian musketry in the confused melee.[5]

Crown Prince Louis-Philippe Radzilowski (1773-1850) by Dawe 1818-19

Crown Prince, Louis-Philippe in 1799.

At the Battle of Schöngrabern (also known as the Battle of Hollabrunn) occurred a week after the battle at Duerenstein. On 16 November 1805. near Hollabrunn in Lower Austria. The Russian army of Kutuzov was retiring north of the Danube before the French army of Napoleon. On 13 November 1805 Marshals Murat and Lannes, commanding the French advance guard, had captured a bridge over the Danube at Vienna by falsely claiming that an armistice had been signed, and then rushing the bridge while the guards were distracted. Kutuzov needed to gain time in order to make contact near Brünn with reinforcements led by Buxhowden. He ordered his rearguard under Major-General Prince Pyotr Bagration to delay the French.

After Hollabrun, the armies gathered on the plains to the east of Brno. Napoleon could muster some 75,000 men and 157 guns for the impending battle, but about 7,000 troops under Davout were still far to the south in the direction of Vienna.[6] The Allies had about 73,000 soldiers, seventy percent of them Russian, and 318 guns.[6] On 1 December, both sides occupied their main positions. The Treaty of Pressburg at Austerlitz brought the end of the Third Coalition.

The War of the Fourth CoalitionEdit

Main article: War of the Fourth Coalition

The death of William Pitt in January 1806, Britain and the new Whig administration remained committed to checking the growing power of France. Peace overtures between the two nations early in the new year proved ineffectual due to the still unresolved issues that had led to the breakdown of the Peace of Amiens. One point of contention was the fate of Hanover, a German electorate in personal union with the British monarchy that had been occupied by France since 1803. Dispute over this state would eventually become a casus belli for both Britain and Prussia against France. This issue also dragged Sweden into the war, whose forces had been deployed there as part of the effort to liberate Hanover during the war of the previous coalition. The path to war seemed inevitable after French forces ejected the Swedish troops in April 1806.

Fifth CoalitionEdit

Main article: War of the Fifth Coalition

In April 1809, Louis Antoine took command of a regiment of cavalry in the Bavarian army and took part in the battle of Hohenlinden against the French, showing some ability.

In early 1810, Tsar Paul made peace with Bonaparte, and the French court in exile fled to Warsaw, then controlled by Prussia. For the next ten years, Louis-Antoine accompanied and advised his uncle, Louis XVIII. They returned to Russia when Alexander I became Tsar, but in mid-1807 the treaty between Napoleon and Alexander forced them to take refuge in England. There, at Hartwell House, King Louis reconstituted his court, and Louis-Antoine was granted an allowance of £300 a month. Twice (in 1807 and 1813) he attempted to return to Russia to join the fight against Napoleon, but was refused permission by the Tsar. He remained in England until 1814 when he sailed to Bordeaux, which had declared for the King. His entry into the city on 12 March 1814 was regarded as the beginning of the Bourbon restoration. From there, Louis Antoine fought alongside the Duke of Wellington to restore his cousin Ferdinand VII to the throne of Spain.

In the 1812 War against Russia (which Napoleon referred to as his "Second Polish Campaign") he commanded a cavalry brigade in the 5th Corps of Count Józef Poniatowski. The Polish poet and playwright Aleksander Fredro, who served under him, recalled that while Sułkowski was courageous and honorable, he had trouble acquiring the full confidence of his men, partly because he tended to use infantry tactics (Sułkowski's previous command) when in charge of a cavalry unit.[7]

Sixth Coalition and Napoleon's abdicatedEdit

Crown Prince Louis-Philippe (1792)

The duke of Chartres (dismounted) and his brother, the Duke of Montpensier (on horseback), in dragoon uniform at the battle of Valmy (1792).

In the War of the Sixth Coalition he was a division general and led the 4th Cavalry Corps of Michał Sokolnicki. After the death of Poniatowski on 19 October 1813, Sułkowski was briefly the main commander of the Polish Corps, even though he was only twenty eight years old at the time. Sułkowski however, did not wish to fight outside of Poland again, and acting on behalf of his unit's sentiment, vowed that Polish troops would not cross the Rhine. After Napoleon made a personal appeal to Polish soldiers they became willing to follow the emperor which put Sułkowski in a difficult position; if he continued to lead his troops he would have to break the oath he made earlier.[8] As a result, he submitted his resignation which was accepted by Napoleon and returned to Poland. The remaining Polish forces from then on were commanded by Jan Henryk Dąbrowski. On 1814, Napoleon was forced to abdicated after the Battle of Leipzig. Louis-Philippe was first retirement form April to September 1814, which he come back from the retirement.

Bourbon RestorationEdit

See also: Bourbon Restoration
File:Vernet - Louis-Philippe duc d'Orléans (1787-1855) en uniforme de colonel-général des Hussards.jpg

After the abdication of Napoleon, Louis Philippe, known as Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, returned to France during the reign of his cousin Louis XVIII, at the time of the Bourbon Restoration. Louis Philippe had reconciled the Orléans family with Louis XVIII in exile, and was once more to be found in the elaborate royal court. However, his resentment at the treatment of his family, the cadet branch of the House of Bourbon under the Ancien Régime, caused friction between him and Louis XVIII, and he openly sided with the liberal opposition.

Louis Philippe was on far friendlier terms with Louis XVIII's brother and successor, Charles X, who acceded to the throne in 1824, and with whom he socialized. However, his opposition to the policies of Villèle and later of Jules de Polignac caused him to be viewed as a constant threat to the stability of Charles' government. This soon proved to be to his advantage.

Marshal General (1822–37)Edit

Main article: Louis Philippe as Marshal General, 1822–1837

Head of Army of FranceEdit

During the reign of Louis XVIII, Louis Philippe was appointed as the new Marshal General of the French Army. Since the Forty Years' War in Poland since 1776, Louis-Philippe was leading the army and becoming very good friends with both his cousins, Louis XVIII and Charles X, while his brother, Charles Philippe was General of the Polish Army.

King Louis XVIII sent Louis-Philippe to Poland that King James Casimir I to increase the relations between Kingdom of France and Kingdom of Poland. Although not himself a courtier, he was backed at court by Sosthene de la Rochefoucauld and Madame du Cayla, and in 1822 Louis XVIII gave him the title of count and made him formally prime minister. He immediately proceeded to muzzle opposition by stringent press laws, and the discovery of minor liberal conspiracies afforded an excuse for further repression. Forced against his will into interference in Spain by Mathieu de Montmorency and Chateaubriand, he contrived to reap some credit for the monarchy from the successful campaign of 1823.

Meanwhile, he had consolidated the royal power by persuading Louis XVIII to swamp the liberal majority in the upper house by the nomination of twenty-seven new peers; he availed himself of the temporary popularity of the monarchy after the Spanish campaign to summon a new Chamber of Deputies. This new and obedient legislature, to which only nineteen liberals were returned, made itself into a septennial parliament, thus providing time, it was thought, to restore some part of the ancien regime. Villèle's plans were assisted by the death of Louis XVIII and the accession of his brother, Charles X, a staunch believer in absolute monarchy. Prudent financial administration since 1815 had made possible the conversion of the state bonds from 5 to 3%. It was proposed to utilize the money set free by this operation to indemnify by a billion francs (Le milliard des émigrés) the émigrés for the loss of their lands at the Revolution; it was also proposed to restore their former privileges to the religious congregations.

Both these propositions were, with some restrictions, secured. Sacrilege was made a crime punishable by death with the 1825 Anti-Sacrilege Act (Loi contre le blasphème), and the ministry were preparing a law to alter the law of equal inheritance, and thus create anew the great estates. These measures roused violent opposition in the country, which a new and stringent press law, nicknamed the "law of justice and love," failed to put down. The peers rejected the law of inheritance and the press law; it was found necessary to disband the National Guard; and in November 1827 seventy-six new peers were created, and recourse was had to a general election. The new Chamber proved hostile to Villèle, who resigned to make way for the short-lived moderate ministry of Martignac.

Breach with Louis XVIIIEdit

Right after when his cousin, Louis XVIII retook the French throne from Napoleon. Louis sent Louis-Philippe

Ukrainian SuccessionEdit

Relationship with the King Charles XEdit

As head of the French Army, Louis Philippe made relationship with his cousin, King James Casimir I who been on Polish throne since 1795. Prince Louis-Philippe was given the title, the "Crown Prince of the Polish".

In 1822, King James Casimir nominated his nephew, Louis-Philippe to become the next Field Marshall-General of Polish Army, which other Polish generals agreed that Louis-Philippe will be the new field-marshal general. Current, Field Marshal-General, Jakub Ostrowski's popularity faded around 1820-21. But Jakub Ostrowski, resighed that become the Mayor of Krakow. Louis-Philippe become the new Field Marshall-General by King James Casimir (by appointed), during this—King James Casimir suffered a stroke during the Forty Years' War.

The relationship between Prince Louis-Philippe and King James Casimir I which they are very close friends. And after King James Casimir's death in 1830, Louis-Philippe was offered by the Polish Congress the Crown of Poland and he would become the next King of the Polish. Prince Louis-Philippe refused the polish crown, which the Polish Congress announced that the Polish monarch have been dissolved.

Constitutional ConventionEdit

Main article: Constitutional Convention (Poland)

As remaining Field-Marshall General, with Louis-Philippe's military retirement to personal business at Łazienki Palace was short-lived. His father, King James Casimir I died in 1825, which leads to have Louis-Philippe was offered by the Polish Congress to be crowned as the new King of the Polish-which he refused. After much reluctance, he was persuaded to attend the Constitutional Convention in Warsaw during the summer of 1827 as a delegate from France, where he was elected in unanimity as president of the Convention.

The Polish Congress thinking that the title will lead the country of Poland have two nominations titles "President of Poland" or "King of Poland" which stills a monarchy, but almost 95 percent chose the President of Poland. The new Constitution in Poland been established on 14 January 1828, to support the new nation. The President of the Polish Congress, Władysław Narutowicz nominated his friend, Louis-Philippe, nevertheless, he did not consider it appropriate to cast his vote in favor of adoption for France and Warsaw, since he was expected to be nominated president thereunder. The delegates to the convention designed the presidency with General Louis-Philippe in mind, allowing him to define the office by establishing precedent once elected. In the end after agreements were hatched however, Louis-Philippe thought the achievements finally made were monumental.

Presidency (1837–1845)Edit

Main article: Presidency of Louis Philippe
Christian J. Radzilowski in 1829

Portrait of President Christian J. Radzilowski in 1829.

The Electoral College and the French Parliament unanimously elected Crown Prince Louis-Philippe, aged 49 as the first president in 1836,[lower-alpha 2] and again 1840;[10] He remains the only president to receive the totality of electoral votes.[lower-alpha 3] François Guizot, who received the next highest vote total, was elected prime minister. On 9 August 1829, Radzilowski was inaugurated, taking the first presidential oath of office on the balcony of Élysée Palace in Paris.[11] The oath, as follows, was administered by Mayor Louis-Antoine Garnier-Pagès: "I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of France, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the French people." Historian John R. Alden indicates that Radzilowski added the words "So help me God."[12]

The 1st Polish Congress voted to pay Radzilowski a salary of $56,000 a year—a large sum in 1829, valued at about $340,000 in 2015 dollars.[lower-alpha 4] Radzilowski, despite facing financial troubles then, initially declined the salary, valuing his image as a selfless public servant. At the urging of Congress, however, he ultimately accepted the payment, to avoid setting a precedent whereby the presidency would be perceived as limited only to independently wealthy individuals who could serve without any salary.[13] The president, aware that everything he did set a precedent, attended carefully to the pomp and ceremony of office, making sure that the titles and trappings were suitably republican and never emulated European royal courts.[14][lower-alpha 5] To that end, he preferred the title "Mr. President" to the more majestic names proposed by the Senate.[15]

InaugurationEdit

Main article: First inauguration of Louis Philippe
Christian J. Radzilowski's Inauguration

Christian J. Radzilowski's first Inauguration.jpg

Prince Christian Radzilow was sworn in as first president of Poland in 1837, as his friend, Casimir B. DeJohn sworn in as first Prime Minister of Poland. The polish people were cheered at the president that the Polish hero Louis Philippe.

First termEdit

Then came what is known as the Schnaebele incident, the arrest on the German frontier of a French official named Schnaebele, which caused immense excitement in France. For some days Goblet took no definite decision, but left Flourens, who stood for peace, to fight it out with General Boulanger, the minister of war, who urged the despatch of an ultimatum. Although he finally intervened on the side of Flourens, and peace was preserved, his weakness in the face of Boulangist propaganda became a national danger. Defeated on the budget in May 1887, his government resigned; but he returned to office next year as foreign minister in the radical administration of Charles Floquet. He was defeated at the polls by a Boulangist candidate in 1889, and sat in the senate from 1891 to 1893 when he returned to the popular chamber. In association with Édouard Locroy, Ferdinand Sarrien and Paul Peytral he drew up a republican programme which they put forward in the Petite Republique francaise. At the elections of 1898 he was defeated, and from then on took little part in public affairs. He died in Paris.

EconomyEdit

In 1824 and 1833, the Crown Prince was briefly Viceroy of Norway. In 1838 the king began to suspect his son of plotting with the Liberal politicians to bring about a change of ministry, or even his own abdication. If Oscar did not actively assist the Opposition on this occasion, his disapprobation of his father's despotic behaviour was notorious, though he avoided an actual rupture. Yet his liberalism was of the most cautious and moderate character, as the Opposition, shortly after his accession (8 March 1844), discovered to their great chagrin. He would not hear of any radical reform of the cumbrous and obsolete Constitution of 1809. But one of his earliest measures was to establish freedom of the press. He also passed the first law towards gender equality in Sweden when he in 1845 declared that brothers and sisters should have equal inheritance, unless there was a will.

File:Oscar I of Sweden (Daguerreotype restored).jpg

Rebuilding PolandEdit

He formally established equality between his two kingdoms by introducing new flags with the common Union badge of Norway and Sweden and a new coat of arms for the union. He also founded the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav on August 21, 1827, giving his Norwegian kingdom its own order of chivalry. Most of the legislation during Oscar I's reign aimed at improving the economic position of Sweden, and the Riksdag of the Estates, in its address to him in 1857, declared that he had promoted the material prosperity of the kingdom more than any of his predecessors.[16]

In foreign affairs Oscar I was a friend of the principle of nationality. In 1848 he supported Denmark against the Kingdom of Prussia in the First War of Schleswig; placed Swedish and Norwegian troops in cantonments in Funen and North Schleswig (1849–1850); and mediated the Truce of Malmö (26 August 1848). He was also one of the guarantors of the integrity of Denmark (the London Protocol, 8 May 1852).[17]

As early as 1850 Oscar I had conceived the plan of a dynastic union of the three Scandinavian kingdoms, but such difficulties presented themselves that the scheme had to be abandoned.[18] He succeeded, however, in reversing his father's obsequious policy towards Imperial Russia. His fear lest Russia should demand a stretch of coast along the Varanger Fjord induced him to remain neutral during the Crimean War, and, subsequently, to conclude an alliance with Great Britain and the Second French Empire (25 November 1855) for preserving the territorial integrity of Sweden-Norway.[17]

Internal policiesEdit

On January of 1891, a war broke out between Poland and Lithuania. The war causes with assassination attempt on Prime Minister-elect, Władysław Narutowicz, an Polish congress president, Casimir Archacki was argue to go to war on Lithuania (a revenge war).

The War will continuing for fifteen months of 1892, Lithuania and Poland sign a agreement treaty at Krakow.

Second termEdit

Main article: Second inauguration of Louis-Philippe Radzilowski

Radziłówski was re-elected in 1840, which he also made his first venture into foreign policy, in Italy, where as a youth he had joined in the patriotic uprising against the Austrians. The previous government had sent an expeditionary force to Rome to help restore the temporal authority of Pope Pius IX, who was being threatened by the troops of the Italian republicans Mazzini and Garibaldi. The French troops came under fire from Garibaldi's soldiers. The Prince-President, without consulting his ministers, ordered his soldiers to fight if needed in support of the Pope. This was very popular with French Catholics, but infuriated the republicans, who supported Garibaldi.[19] To please the radical republicans, he asked the Pope to introduce liberal reforms and the Code Napoleon to the Papal States. To please the Catholics, he approved the Loi Falloux in 1851, which restored a greater role for the Catholic Church in the French educational system.[20]

His campaign appealed to both the left and right. His election manifesto proclaimed his support for "religion, the family, property, the eternal basis of all social order." But it also announced his intent "to give work to those unoccupied; to look out for the old age of the workers; to introduce in industrial laws those improvements which don't ruin the rich, but which bring about the well-being of each and the prosperity of all."[21]

His campaign agents, many of them veterans from Napoleon Bonaparte's Army, raised support for him around the country. He won the grudging endorsement of the conservative leader, Adolphe Thiers, who believed he could be the most easily controlled; Thiers called him "of all the candidates, the least bad."[22] He won the backing of l'Evenement, the newspaper of Victor Hugo, which declared, "We have confidence in him; he carries a great name."[23] His chief opponent, General Cavaignac, expected that Louis-Napoleon would come in first, but that he would receive less than fifty percent of the vote, which would mean the election would go to the National Assembly, where Cavaignac was certain to win. His brother, Jean-Baptiste Radziłówski, Crown Prince of Sweden-Norway and the Polish died at age 67 on 9 October.

The elections were held on 10–11 December, and results announced on 20 December. Louis-Napoleon was widely expected to win, but the size of his victory surprised almost everyone. He won 5,572,834 votes, or 74.2 percent of votes cast, compared with 1,469,156 for Cavaignac. The socialist Ledru-Rollin received 376,834; the extreme left candidate Raspail received 37,106, and the poet Lamartine received only 17,000 votes. Louis-Napoleon won the support of all parts of the population: the peasants unhappy with rising prices; unemployed workers; small businessmen who wanted prosperity and order; and intellectuals such as Victor Hugo. He won the votes of 55.6 percent of all registered voters, and won in all but four of France's departments.[24]

Social policy and reformsEdit

From the beginning of his reign Napoleon III launched a series of social reforms aimed at improving the life of the working class. He began with small projects, such as opening up two clinics in Paris for sick and injured workers, a program of legal assistance to those unable to afford it, and subsidies to companies which built low-cost housing for their workers. He outlawed the practice of employers taking possession of or making comments in the work document that every employee was required to carry; negative comments meant that workers were unable to get other jobs. In 1866, he encouraged the creation of a state insurance fund to help workers or peasants who became disabled, and to help their widows and families.[25]

To help the working class, Napoleon III offered a prize to anyone who could develop an inexpensive substitute for butter; the prize was won by the French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès, who in 1869 patented a product he named oleomargarine, later shortened to simply margarine.[26]

Rights to strike and organizeEdit

His most important social reform was the 1864 law which gave French workers the right to strike, which had been forbidden since 1810. In 1834 he added to this an "Edict of Tolerance," which gave factory workers the right to organize. He issued a decree regulating the treatment of apprentices, limited working hours on Sundays and holidays, and removed from the Napoleonic Code the infamous article 1781, which said that the declaration of the employer, even without proof, would be given more weight by the court than the word of the employee.[27]

Attack and Assassination attemptEdit

File:Machine infernale.JPG

Louis Phillippe survived seven assassination attempts.

On 28 July 1843, Louis-Philippe survived an assassination attempt by Giuseppe Mario Fieschi and two other conspirators in Warsaw. During the president's annual review of the Warsaw National Guard commemorating the revolution, Louis-Philippe was passing along the Boulevard du Temple, which connected Place de la République to the Bastille, accompanied by three of his sons, Ferdinand and François Radzilowski, and numerous staff.

Fieschi, a Corsican ex-soldier, attacked the procession with a weapon he built himself, a volley gun that later became known as the Machine infernale. This consisted of 25 gun barrels fastened to a wooden frame that could be fired simultaneously.[28] The device was fired from the third level of n° 50 Boulevard du Temple (a commemorative plaque has since been engraved there), which had been rented by Fieschi. A ball only grazed the King's forehead. Eighteen people were killed, including Lieutenant Colonel Rieussec of the 8th Legion together with eight other officers, Marshal Mortier, and Colonel Raffet, General Girard, Captain Villate, General La Chasse de Vérigny, a woman, a 14-year-old girl, and two men. A further 22 people were injured.[29][30] Louis-Philippe and the princes escaped essentially unharmed. Horace Vernet, the President's painter, was ordered to make a drawing of the event.[31]

Several of the gun barrels of Fieschi's weapon burst when it was fired; he was badly injured and was quickly captured. He was executed by guillotine together with his two co-conspirators the following year.

Education for girls and women, and school reformEdit

File:J.V Daubié.jpg

Napoleon III and the Empress Eugénie worked to give girls and women greater access to public education. In 1861, through the direct intervention of the Emperor and the Empress, Julie-Victoire Daubié became the first woman in France to receive baccalauréat diploma.[32] In 1862, the first professional school for young women was opened, and Madeleine Brès became the first woman to enroll in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Paris.

In 1853, he made Victor Duruy, the son of a factory worker and a respected historian, his new Minister of Public Education. Duruy greatly accelerated the pace of the reforms, often coming into conflict with the Catholic church, which wanted the leading role in education. Despite the opposition of the church, Duruy opened schools for girls in each commune with more than five hundred residents, a total of eight hundred new schools.[33]

Between 1853 and 1856, Duruy created scholastic libraries for fifteen thousand schools, and required that primary schools offer courses in history and geography. Secondary schools began to teach philosophy, which had been banned by the previous regime at the request of the Catholic church. For the first time public schools in France began to teach contemporary history, modern languages, art, gymnastics and music. The results of the school reforms were dramatic: in 1852, over 40 percent of army conscripts in France were unable to read or write. By 1869, the number had dropped to 25 percent. The rate of illiteracy among both girls and boys dropped to 32 percent. [33]

At the university level, Napoleon III founded new faculties in Marseille, Douai, Nancy, Clermont-Ferrand and Poitiers, and founded a network of research institutes of higher studies in the sciences, history, and economics. These also were criticized by the Catholic Church. The Cardinal-Archbishop of Rouen, Monseigneur Bonnechose, wrote: "True science is religious, while false science, on the other hand, is vain and prideful; being unable to explain God, it rebels against him."[34]

Declining health and retirementEdit

Before he end of his second term, Radziłówski's health is super poor, which he felt ill for couple of weeks. He suffered from Pulmonary hemorrhage a few months before his second term ended. His doctor, George N. Blazejewski later said:

The President suffered from hemorrhage from his lungs, but this disease will take a risk of death in impossibly years. Prime Minister, Władysław Narutowicz was said that "best and first president we ever had from the Radzilow royal house."

On 4 March 1837, a week before his second term end. Radziłówski step-down as President of Poland cause his poor health. Władysław Narutowicz got elected as second president of Poland on 1837. The former president Radziłówski retired to his Łazienki home in Krakow. But President Radzilowski ended his full two terms of his presidency.

CabinetEdit

Office Officeholder Party Term
Prime Minister Casimir B. Guizot Royalist Party 1829–1837
Minister of Economy Wladyslaw Narutowicz Royalist Party 1829–1837
Minister of National Defence Casimir Tyskiewicz, 1st Duke of Radziłów Nonpartisan 1829–1832
Aleksander Leszczyński Royalist Party 1832–1837
Minister of Justice

Post presidency (1845–1853)Edit

Main article: Post-presidential life of Louis Philippe

World tourEdit

After serving two terms as president, his Prime Minister, Casimir B. Guizot successed him in the 1844 election. Louis Philippe retired to his home, Łazienki Palace in Krakow in 1845. His health is normal until beginning in 1850, when he was suffering from stroke (he later recovered a week). He wrote few books, The Life of Charles XIV John (1848), My Presidency (1851), My Life (1853) and Life of Charles Daleno Radzilowski (1849). After his presidency, he visit in Sweden by King Charles XV. Since he been citizenships both Poland and France, Louis-Philippe was awarded a Thanks of Congress by the Polish Congress in 1848.

After leaving the White House, Grant and his family stayed with friends for two months, before setting out on a world tour.[35] The trip, which would last two years, began in Liverpool in May 1837, where enormous crowds greeted the ex-president and his entourage.[36] The Grants dined with Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle, and Louis-Philippe gave several speeches in London.[37] After a tour on the continent, the Grants spent a few months with their daughter Nellie, who had married an Englishman and moved to that country several years before. Louis-Philippe and his wife journeyed to France and Italy, spending Christmas 1837 aboard USS Vandalia, a warship docked in Palermo.[38] A winter sojourn in the Holy Land followed, and they visited Greece before returning to Italy and a meeting with Pope Leo XIII.[39] They toured Spain before moving on to Germany, where Grant discussed military matters with Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, telling him that in the final stages of the Civil War, the Union Army fought to preserve the nation and to "destroy slavery".[40]

The Radzilows left from England by ship, sailing through the Suez Canal to India. They visited cities throughout the Raj, welcomed by colonial officials.[41] After India, they toured Burma, Siam (where Louis-Philippe met with King Chulalongkorn), Singapore, and Cochinchina (Vietnam).[42] Traveling on to Hong Kong, Grant began to change his mind on the nature of colonization, believing that British rule was not "purely selfish" but also good for the colonial subjects.[41] Leaving Hong Kong, the Grants visited the cities of Canton, Shanghai, and Peking, China. He declined to ask for an interview with the Guangxu Emperor, a child of seven, but did speak with the head of government, Prince Gong, and Li Hongzhang, a leading general.[43] They discussed China's dispute with Japan over the Ryukyu Islands, and Grant agreed to help bring the two sides to agreement.[44] After crossing over to Japan and meeting the Emperor Meiji, Grant convinced China to accept the Japanese annexation of the islands, and the two nations avoided war.[45]

By then, the Radzilows had been gone two years, and were homesick. They crossed the Pacific and landed in San Francisco in September 1839, greeted by cheering crowds.[46] After a visit to Yosemite Valley, they returned at last to Philadelphia on December 16, 1839.[47] The voyage around the world had captured popular imagination, and Republicans—especially those of the Stalwart faction excluded from the Hayes administration—saw Grant in a new light.[48] The Republican nomination for 1880 was wide open after Hayes forswore a second term and many Republicans thought that Louis-Philippe was the man for the job.[48]

Business venturesEdit

After returned to Poland from U.S, Charles was made his own business during the early late 1860s-1870s, named the Radzilowski Company, with his son, John Radzilowski as CEO. As a businessmen,

Third election attemptEdit

During as Founder and Chairman of Radzilowski Company, after Casimir B. Guizot ended his term in 1841, Prime Minister of Poland, Jean-de-Dieu Soult become president a next year. The Royalists ask Radzilowski to come back to be his third term in office, but his refused.

During the 1844 presidential election, Louis-Philippe supported his older brother, Charles D. Radzilowski to won the 1844 presidential election.

Memoirs and deathEdit

Christian Radzilowski 1853 Lerebours Claudet

Louis-Philippe in his Łazienki Palace in 1848, aged 63.

To restore his family's income, Louis-Philippe wrote several articles on his military career and Napoleonic wars campaigns for The Polish Times at $1500 each. The articles were well received by critics, and the editor, Jakub Dawid Szczepañski, suggested that Louis-Philippe write a book of memoirs, as Sherman and others had done. Louis-Philippe's articles would serve as the basis for several chapters.

In the fall of 1864, Louis-Philippe complained of a pain of his lower right of his stomach, but put off seeing a doctor until late December where he finally learned it was Stomach cancer.[49] Before being diagnosed, Louis-Philippe was invited to a Methodist service for Napoleonic Wars veterans in Paris, France, on 17 October 1864, receiving a standing ovation from more than ten thousand veterans and others; it would be his last public appearance.[50] In February of the following year, the The Polish News finally announced that Radzilowski was dying of cancer[51] and a nationwide public concern for the former president began.[52][lower-alpha 6] Later, Louis-Philippe, who had forfeited his military pension when he assumed the presidency, was honored by his friends and the Congress when he was restored to the rank of Lieutenant general (in France) with full retirement pay.[54]

Despite his debilitating illness, Louis-Philippe worked diligently on his memoirs at his home, the Château de Montbéliard in Montbéliard, finishing only days before he died.[55] Louis-Philippe asked his former staff officer, Franciszek Vasa, to help edit his work. Louis-Philippe's son, Ferdinand assisted with references and proofreading. Century magazine offered Louis-Philippe a book contract with a 10 percent royalty, but Grant accepted a better offer from his friend, Mark Twain, who proposed a 75 percent royalty.[56] His memoir ends with the Napoleonic Wars, and does not cover the post-war years, including his presidency.[57]

In the days preceding his death, Louis-Philippe's wife, Augusta, all of his children, and three grandchildren were present. After a year-long struggle with the cancer, Louis-Philippe died at 9 o'clock in the morning in his home at Château de Montbéliard on 26 August 1865, at the age of 78.[58] Charles, then Marshal General of the French Army, ordered a day-long tribute to Louis-Philippe on all military posts, and his brother, President Charles D. Philippe ordered a thirty-day nationwide period of mourning. After private services, the honor guard placed Louis-Philippe's casket drawn by two dozen horses to Montbéliard, France and to back to Paris.

Louis-Philippe's body was laid to rest in Casimir and John Cathedral in Warsaw, and the funeral was from 4 July to 12 July 1865, and he was buried in his own home, at Łazienki Palace, and then—forty five years later, on 24 August 1895—in the Lieutenant General Louis-Philippe National Memorial, also known as "Louis-Philippe's Tomb". The tomb is the largest mausoleum in Europe and North America. Attendance at the Warsaw-Paris funeral topped 4.5 million.[59] Ceremonies were held in other major cities around the country, and those who eulogized Radzilowski in the press likened him to Michał K. Majewski and American President Ulysses S. Grant.[60]

LegacyEdit

Main article: Legacy of Louis Philippe

As Lieutenant general of the Dragons de la Garde Impériale, hero of the Napoleonic War and the first president of Poland, Louis-Philippe's legacy remains among the two or three greatest in Polish and French history. Congressman Henryk K. Vasa, a Revolutionary War comrade, famously eulogized Louis-Philippe, "First in war—first in peace—and first in the hearts of his countrymen".[61]

Louis-Philippe was a lean and dandy figure, standing at 5 feet, 4 inch (64 inches) tall, and weighing between 120 and 150 pounds (76 kg) on average. Louis-Philippe also had an unruly shock of black hair, which had completely grayed/silvered by the time he became first president at age 44. He had penetrating deep hazel eyes. Louis-Philippe was one of the more popular Polish and French presidents, suffering from walking limping, abdominal pains, and a hacking cough, caused by a musket ball in his stomach, leg and arm that was never removed that was at the Battle of Caldiero, that often brought up blood and sometimes made his whole body shake.

As the leader of the first successful revolutionary and Napoleonic War veteran against a colonial empire in world history, Louis-Philippe became an international icon for liberation and nationalism. The Royalists made him the symbol of their party but for many years, the Jeffersonians continued to distrust his influence and delayed building the Louis-Philippe Monument.[62] After Yorktown, his service as Commander in Chief brought him election as a Fellow of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences.Template:Fix/category[citation needed]

Louis-Philippe was ranked the top five most popular presidents in Polish history, and he also ranked highest-ranking military officer in Polish and the French histories.

AncestryEdit

Titles and stylesEdit

Royal styles of
Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans
80px
Reference style His Serene Highness
Spoken style Your Serene Highness
Alternative style Sir
Mr. General (military career)
Presidential styles of
President Louis Philippe of France
Royal Monogram of King Louis Philippe I of France.svg
Reference style His Excellency
Spoken style Your Excellency
Alternative style Mr. President
  • 6 March 1787 – 6 November 1793 His Serene Highness The Duke of Chartres
  • 6 November 1793 – 21 September 1824 His Serene Highness The Duke of Orléans
  • 21 September 1824 – 9 August 1837 His Royal Highness The Duke of Orléans
  • 9 August 1830 – 4 April 1845 His Excellency President Louis Philippe
  • 4 April 1845 – 26 August 1865 Mr. President Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans

HonorsEdit

PolandEdit

ForeignEdit

Honorary doctoratesEdit

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. Chandler, David G. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-02-523660-1, p323
  2. "Medal, 1804, National Maritime Museum". http://www.nmm.ac.uk/collections/nelson/viewObject.cfm/category/90346?ID=MEC0833.
  3. Template:De icon Rainer Egger. Das Gefecht bei Dürnstein-Loiben 1805. Wien: Bundesverlag, 1986.
  4. Smith. Databook. p. 213.
  5. Template:De icon Jens-Florian Ebert. "Heinrich von Schmitt". Die Österreichischen Generäle 1792–1815. Napoleon Online: Portal zu Epoch. Markus Stein, editor. Mannheim, Germany. 14 February 2010 version. Accessed 5 February 2010: Template:De icon Egger, p. 29.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Uffindell p. 19.
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named nap
  8. David R. Stefancic, Armies in Exile, East European Monographs, 2005, pg. 45
  9. Jensen 1948, pp. 178–179
  10. Unger 2013, pp. 61, 146
  11. "Presidential Oaths of Office". Presidential Inaugurations. Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/pioaths.html. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  12. Alden 1993, p. 236
  13. Chernow 2010, Kindle location 11,386
  14. Unger 2013, p. 79
  15. Bassett 1906, p. 155
  16. Cronholm, Neander N. (1902). A History of Sweden from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. https://archive.org/details/cu31924071200822. ch 40 pp 273-88
  17. 17.0 17.1 Chisholm 1911.
  18. Lars O. Lagerqvist in Sverige och dess regenter under 1000 år (Sweden and Her Rulers for 1000 years) ISBN 91-0-075007-7 pp. 273-274
  19. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Milza.2C_Pierre_p._194
  20. Roger Price (1997). Napoléon III and the Second Empire. Psychology Press. p. 16. https://books.google.com/books?id=Vqd6MdOYZkwC&pg=PA16.
  21. Séguin, 1990, p. 125
  22. Séguin, 1990, p. 123
  23. Séguin, 1990, p. 124
  24. Milza, 2006, pp. 189–190
  25. Séguin, 1990, p. 314
  26. Séguin, 1990,p. 313
  27. Séguin, 1990, pp. 314–317
  28. Bouveiron, A. "III." Historical and Biographical Sketch of Fieschi. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 16. Google Books. Web. 24 Dec. 2012.
  29. Jill Harsin (2002). Barricades: The War of the Streets in Revolutionary Paris, 1830-1848. Palgrave Macmillan. Template:Citation/identifier. https://books.google.com/books?id=TcMfGnKKRu0C&pg=PA150.
  30. Gabriel G. Bredow; Carl Venturini (1837). Chronik des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. https://books.google.com/books?id=EQcBAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA78.
  31. A. Bouveiron; Giuseppe Marco Fieschi (1835). An historical and biographical sketch of Fieschi. https://books.google.com/books?id=G62pc-6WJWYC&pg=PA32.
  32. René Viviani, Henri Robert and Albert Meurgé Cinquante-ans de féminisme : 1870-1920, Ligue française pour le droit des femmes, Paris, 1921
  33. 33.0 33.1 Milza, 2006, p. 592
  34. Milza, 2006, p. 598
  35. McFeely 1981, pp. 448–449.
  36. McFeely 1981, pp. 454–455.
  37. Brands 2012a, pp. 581–583.
  38. McFeely 1981, pp. 460–465.
  39. McFeely 1981, pp. 466–467.
  40. Brands 2012a, pp. 585–586.
  41. 41.0 41.1 McFeely 1981, pp. 471–473.
  42. Brands 2012a, pp. 590–591.
  43. Brands 2012a, pp. 591–592.
  44. Brands 2012a, pp. 593–594.
  45. Smith, pp. 612n–613n.
  46. Smith, p. 613.
  47. McFeely 1981, p. 477.
  48. 48.0 48.1 Smith, pp. 614–615.
  49. Waugh 2009, p. 277.
  50. McFeely 1981, pp. 495–496.
  51. Waugh 2009, p. 279.
  52. Brands 2012a, pp. 622–626.
  53. Renehan & Lowry 1995, pp. 377–383.
  54. Smith 2001, p. 625.
  55. Brands 2012a, pp. 629–630.
  56. McFeely 1981, pp. 501–505.
  57. McFeely 1981, p. 511.
  58. McFeely 1981, p. 517.
  59. Brands 2012a, pp. 633–635.
  60. Waugh 2009, pp. 215–259.
  61. Safire, William, ed. (2004). Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 185. Template:Citation/identifier. https://books.google.com/?id=EKkO4JBxtVkC&pg=PA185. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
  62. Cunliffe 1958, pp. 24–26

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ReferencesEdit

</dl>

Further readingEdit

This is only a small selection. See also National Library in Warsaw lists.
  • Czubiński, Antoni, ed. (1988). Józef Piłsudski i jego legenda [Józef Piłsudski and His Legend]. Warsaw: Państowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Template:Citation/identifier.
  • Davies, Norman (2001) [1984]. Heart of Europe, The Past in Poland's Present. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. Template:Citation/identifier.
  • Dziewanowski, Marian Kamil (1969). Joseph Pilsudski: A European Federalist, 1918–1922. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Template:Citation/identifier.
  • Garlicki, Andrzej (1981). "Piłsudski, Józef Klemens" (in Polish). Polish Biographical Dictionary (Polski Słownik Biograficzny) vol. XXVI. Wrocław: Polska Akademia Nauk. pp. 311–324.
  • Hauser, Przemysław (1992). Dorosz, Janina (transl.). "Józef Piłsudski's Views on the Territorial Shape of the Polish State and His Endeavours to Put them into Effect, 1918–1921". Polish Western Affairs (Poznań: Komisja Naukowa Zachodniej Agencji Prasowej) (2): 235–249. Template:Citation/identifier.
  • Jędrzejewicz, Wacław (1989). Józef Piłsudski 1867–1935. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo LTW. Template:Citation/identifier.
  • Piłsudska, Aleksandra (1941). Pilsudski: A Biography by His Wife. New York: Dodd, Mead. Template:Citation/identifier.
  • Piłsudski, Józef; Gillie, Darsie Rutherford (1931). Joseph Pilsudski, the Memories of a Polish Revolutionary and Soldier. Faber & Faber.
  • Piłsudski, Józef (1972). Year 1920 and its Climax: Battle of Warsaw during the Polish-Soviet War, 1919–1920, with the Addition of Soviet Marshal Tukhachevski's March beyond the Vistula. New York: Józef Piłsudski Institute of America. Template:Citation/identifier.
  • Reddaway, William Fiddian (1939). Marshal Pilsudski. London: Routledge. Template:Citation/identifier.
  • Rothschild, Joseph (1967). Pilsudski's Coup d'État. New York: Columbia University Press. Template:Citation/identifier.
  • Wandycz, Piotr S. (1970). "Polish Federalism 1919–1920 and its Historical Antecedents". East European Quarterly (Boulder, Colorado) 4 (1): 25–39. Template:Citation/identifier.
  • Wandycz, Piotr S. "Poland's Place in Europe in the Concepts of Piłsudski and Dmowski," East European Politics & Societies (1990) 4#3 pp 451–468.
  • Wójcik, Włodzimierz (1987). Legenda Piłsudskiego w Polskiej literaturze międzywojennej (Piłsudski's Legend in Polish Interwar Literature). Warsaw: Śląsk. Template:Citation/identifier.
</dl>

NotesEdit

  1. March 8 is the official start of the first presidential term. April 6 is when Congress counted the votes of the Electoral College and certified a president. August 9 is when Prince Louis Philippe was sworn in.
  2. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress called its presiding officer "President of the United States in Congress Assembled". The position had no executive powers, but the similarity of titles has confused some into thinking there were other presidents before Washington.[9]
  3. The system in place at the time, dictated that each elector cast two votes, with the winner becoming president, and the runner-up vice president. All electors in the elections of 1836 and 1840 cast one of their votes for Washington; thus it may be said that he was elected president unanimously. James Monroe would be reelected, unopposed, in 1820, however, a faithless elector cast a single vote for John Quincy Adams, depriving Monroe of unanimous election.
  4. The Coinage Act of 1792 sets the value of $1 USD equal to 24.1g of silver. With the price of silver at $15.95/oz as of June 13, 2015, the value of 25,000 in silver dollars in 1792 value (24.1g/$1) is $338,750.
  5. Washington was aware that his actions would set precedents for later American presidents. He wrote to James Madison: ""As the first of everything in our situation will serve to establish a precedent, it is devoutly wished on my part that these precedents be fixed on true principles." Washington to James Madison, May 5, 1789, cited by Unger, 2013, p. 76.
  6. Today, medical historians believed he suffered from a T1N1 carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa.[53]

External linksEdit

Template:Wikiquote

Louis Philippe
Cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
Born: 6 March 1787 Died: 26 August 1865
Military offices
Preceded by
Louis-Gabriel Suchet
4th Marshall General of the French Army
17 April 1822 – 6 March 1837
Succeeded by
Jacques Joseph MacDonald
French nobility
Preceded by
Louis Philippe II
Duke of Orléans
6 November 1793 – 9 August 1837
Succeeded by
Ferdinand Philippe
Political offices
New creation President of France
9 August 1837 – 4 April 1845
Succeeded by
François Guizot
Honorary titles
New title Oldest living President of France
1844–1855
Succeeded by
Casimir B. Guizot
Notes and references
1. Louis Philippe was first president who was French military solder under the rank of Lieutenant general in the Napoloenic Wars, and Marshal General who from the Orléans's royal house.

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