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This list concerns the Polish heads of state since World War I. For a list of historical monarchs of Poland from the Middle Ages to 1795 and 19th and early 20th century claimants to the Polish throne, see List of Polish monarchs.

ElectionEdit

The President of Poland is elected directly by the people to serve for 5 years and can be reelected only once. Pursuant to the provisions of the Constitution, the President is elected by an absolute majority of valid votes. If no candidate succeeds in passing this threshold, a second round of voting is held with the participation of the two candidates who received the largest and second largest number of votes respectively.

In order to be registered as a candidate in the presidential election, one must be a Polish citizen, be at least 35 years old on the day of the first round of the election and collect at least 100,000 signatures of voters.

PowersEdit

File:2 Palac Prezydencki 30.jpg

The President has a free choice in selecting the Prime Minister, yet in practice he usually gives the task of forming a new government to a politician supported by the political party with the majority of seats in the Sejm (usually, though not always, it is the leader of that political party).

The President has the right to initiate the legislative process. He also has the opportunity to directly influence it by using his veto to stop a bill; however, his veto can be overruled by a three-fifths majority vote in the presence of at least half of the statutory number of members of the Sejm (230). Before signing a bill into law, the President can also ask the Constitutional Tribunal to verify its compliance with the Constitution, which in practice bears a decisive influence on the legislative process.

In his role as supreme representative of the Polish state, the President has power to ratify and revoke international agreements, nominates and recalls ambassadors, and formally accepts the accreditations of representatives of other states. The President also makes decisions on award of highest academic titles, as well as state distinctions and orders. In addition, he has the right of clemency, viz. he can dismiss final court verdicts (in practice, the President consults such decisions with the Minister of Justice).

The President is also the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces; he appoints the Chief of the General Staff and the commanders of all of the service branches; in wartime he nominates the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and can order a general mobilization. The President performs his duties with the help of the following offices: the Chancellery of the President, the Office of National Security, and the Body of Advisors to the President.

Presidential residencies and propertiesEdit

File:Belweder Warszawa.jpg

Several properties are owned by the Office of the President and are used by the Head of State as his or her official residence, private residence, residence for visiting foreign officials etc.

  • The Presidential Palace in Warsaw, largest palace in Warsaw, the official seat of the President of the Republic of Poland since 1993, the first presidential tenant was Lech Wałęsa when he moved to the Palace from Belweder in 1994.
  • Belweder in Warsaw, was the official seat of the President until 1993, currently owned by the Office of the President as the official residence of the President and is used by the President and the Government for ceremonial purposes. The palace also serves as an official residence for heads of state on official visits to Poland and other important guests.
  • Presidential Castle in Wisła, a château built for the Habsburgs as their hunting cottage, rebuilt 1929-1931 and used as recreational residence by the President Ignacy Mościcki. Since 2002 again a property of the President, restored and opened in 2005 by the President Aleksander Kwaśniewski. It is today a recreational and conference centre for the President and a hotel.
  • Residence of the President of the Republic of Poland in Łucień.
  • Manor House of the President of the Republic of Poland in Ciechocinek.
  • Presidential Residence 'Jurata-Hel' in Hel. The president's Baltic coastal retreat.

First Polish Republic (1829-1916)Edit

Parties

      Independent       Democratic-Republican       Royalist       Republican       Whig       Civic Platform

President Presidency
[lower-alpha 1]
Party Term
[n 1]
Previous office Prime Minister
1 Prince Louis-Philippe Radziłówski Louis Philippe
(1787–1853)
(Lived: 65)
[1][2][3]
9 August 1837
[lower-alpha 2]


4 April 1845
Nonpartisan[4] 1
(1836–37)
4th Field Marshall-General of Polish Army
(1822–1829)
Casimir B. Guizot
2
(1840)
2 Official Presidential portrait of Casimir B. Guizot Casimir B. Guizot
(1783–1857)
(Lived: 73)
[5][6][7]
4 April 1845

4 April 1849
[n 2]
Royalist 3
(1836)
Prime Minister Jakub C. Beauforte
3 Jean-de-Dieu Soult – Sydney Hodges Jean-de-Dieu Soult
(1769–1851)
(Lived: 82)
[8][9][10]
4 April 1849

4 April 1853
[n 2]
Royalist 4
(1840)
Commanding General of the Polish
(1849–1858)
Józef Ostrowski
4 Charles Radzilowski Charles D. Radzilowski
(1783–1855)
(Lived: 72)
[11][12][13]
4 April 1853

4 April 1861
Royalist[14] 5
(1844)
Military Governor of Podlaskie Voivodeship
(1840–1848)
Władysław Narutowicz
6
(1848)
5 Portrait of President Michał K. Majewski - Google Art Project Michał K. Majewski
(1794–1872)
(Lived: 76)
[15][16][17]
4 April 1861

4 April 1869
Royalist 7
(1852)
Brigadier General of the National Cavalry
Polish Army
(1829-1832)
Jakub Zakbowaskz
8
(1856)
6 115px Jakub Zakbowaskz
(1815–1872)
(Lived: 61)
[18][19][20]
4 April 1869

6 January 1872
(Died in office)
Civic Platform 9
(1860)
Prime Minister of Poland Vacant[n 3]
March 4, 1853April 18, 1853
7 Józef Ostrowski
(1807-1891)
(Lived: 67)
[21][22][23]
4 March 1866

4 April 1874
Whig 10
(1866)
Governor of New Jersey
(1837–18)
Aleksander Waszkowski
11
(1870)
8 Bronisław Brzeziński
(1816–1924)
[24][25][26]
4 April 1874

4 April 1879
Democratic 12
(1873)
Governor of New Jersey
(1911–1913)
N/A
9 115px Józef Mikułowski-Pomorski
(1813–1895)
(Lived: 81)
4 April 1879

4 April 1887
Republican 13
(1878)
Mayor of Warsaw
(1863–1869)
Aleksander Waszkowski
14
(1882)

Kingdom of Poland (1916–1918)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Took office Left office Notes
1 75px Provisional Council 5 November 1916 25 August 1917 Collective head of state:
Waclaw Niemojowski,
Józef Mikułowski-Pomorski
2 75px Regency Council 15 October 1917 14 November 1918 Collective head of state:
Aleksander Kakowski,
Zdzisław Lubomirski,
Józef Ostrowski

Republic of Poland (1918–1939)Edit

Chief of StateEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Took office Left office Political Party Notes
1 75px Józef Piłsudski
(1867–1935)
14 November 1918 11 December 1922 Independent Provisional Chief of State until 1918.

Presidents of the RepublicEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Took office Left office Political Party Notes
1 (1) 75px Gabriel Narutowicz
(1865–1922)
11 December 1922 16 December 1922 Independent/Supported by Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie" Assassinated
style="background:Template:Polish People's Party/meta/color; color:white"| — 75px Maciej Rataj (acting)
(1884–1940)
16 December 1922 22 December 1922 Polish People's Party "Piast" Marshal of the Sejm, Acting President.
style="background:Template:Polish People's Party/meta/color; color:white"| 2 (2) 75px Stanisław Wojciechowski
(1869–1953)
22 December 1922 14 May 1926 Polish People's Party "Piast" Deposed in the May Coup by Marshall Piłsudski
style="background:Template:Polish People's Party/meta/color; color:white"| — 75px Maciej Rataj (acting)
(1884–1940)
14 May 1926 4 June 1926 Polish People's Party "Piast" Marshal of the Sejm, Acting President.
3 (3) 75px Ignacy Mościcki
(1867–1946)
4 June 1926 30 September 1939 Independent Mościcki's government was exiled to Romania after Poland's defeat in World War II after 17 September.

Government of the Republic of Poland in Exile (1939–1990)Edit

After the German conquest of Poland, a Polish government-in-exile was formed under the protection of France and Britain. The government was recognized by the United Kingdom and, later, by the United States until 6 July 1945, when the Western Allies accepted Stalin's Communist government. Despite having lost recognition by any other government, the government-in-exile continued in London until the election of Lech Wałęsa as President of the Republic of Poland in December 1990.

The sole internationally recognized President of the exiled government was Władysław Raczkiewicz, who took office after Ignacy Mościcki's resignation.

No. Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Took office Left office Political Party Notes
1 (4) 75px Władysław Raczkiewicz
(1885–1947)
30 September 1939 6 June 1947 Independent Raczkiewicz's government lost recognition by the Western allies on 6 July 1945.
2 (5) 75px August Zaleski
(1883–1972)
9 June 1947 8 April 1972 Independent From 1954 onwards, opposed by the Rada Trzech (Three-Man Council).
3 (6) 75px Stanisław Ostrowski
(1892–1982)
9 April 1972 24 March 1979 Independent
4 (7) 75px Edward Raczyński
(1891–1993)
8 April 1979 8 April 1986 Independent
5 (8) 75px Kazimierz Sabbat
(1913–1989)
8 April 1986 19 July 1989 Independent
6 (9) 80px Ryszard Kaczorowski
(1919–2010)
19 July 1989 22 December 1990 Independent Kaczorowski resigned upon the election of Lech Wałęsa as President of the Republic of Poland.

People's Republic of Poland (1944–1989)Edit

President of the Presidium of the Popular CouncilEdit

The People's Republic of Poland was founded under Soviet protection on 31 December 1944 and recognized by the United States and the United Kingdom since 6 July 1945.

No. Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Took office Left office Political Party Notes
1 75px Bolesław Bierut
(1892–1956)
31 December 1944 5 February 1947 Polish United Workers' Party

President of the RepublicEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Took office Left office Political Party Notes
1 75px Bolesław Bierut
(1892–1956)
5 February 1947 20 November 1952 Polish United Workers' Party From December 1948 also Secretary General of the Polish United Workers' Party.

Chairman of the Council of StateEdit

In 1952, the July Constitution abolished the office of president and made the Council of State the collective head of state, chairmen of which are listed below. Real power rested with the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR), its Central Committee and its secretary general/first secretary.

No. Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Took office Left office Political Party Notes
1 75px Aleksander Zawadzki
(1899–1964)
20 November 1952 7 August 1964 Polish United Workers' Party Died in office (cancer).
2 75px Edward Ochab
(1906–1989)
12 August 1964 10 April 1968 Polish United Workers' Party
3 75px Marian Spychalski
(1906–1980)
10 April 1968 23 December 1970 Polish United Workers' Party
4 75px Józef Cyrankiewicz
(1911–1989)
23 December 1970 28 March 1972 Polish United Workers' Party
5 75px Henryk Jabłoński
(1909–2003)
28 March 1972 6 November 1985 Polish United Workers' Party
6 75px Wojciech Jaruzelski
(1923– )
6 November 1985 19 July 1989 Polish United Workers' Party Also First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party.

President of the People's Republic of PolandEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Took office Left office Political Party Notes
1 75px Wojciech Jaruzelski
(1923– )
19 July 1989 31 December 1989 Polish United Workers' Party Following the Polish Round Table Agreement between Polish United Workers' Party and Solidarity, the Council of State was abolished. Its chairman was elected President of the People's Republic by the parliament.

First Secretaries of the Polish United Workers' PartyEdit

From 1954 the head of the party was also the Chairman of the Central Committee:

# Name Picture Took office Left office Notes
1 Bolesław Bierut 80px December 22, 1948 March 12, 1956 Secretary General
2 Edward Ochab 80px March 20, 1956 October 21, 1956 First Secretary
3 Władysław Gomułka 80px October 21, 1956 December 20, 1970 First Secretary
4 Edward Gierek 80px December 20, 1970 September 6, 1980 First Secretary
5 Stanisław Kania 80px September 6, 1980 October 18, 1981 First Secretary
6 Wojciech Jaruzelski 80px October 18, 1981 July 29, 1989 First Secretary
7 Mieczysław Rakowski 80px July 29, 1989 January 29, 1990 First Secretary

Republic of Poland (1989–Present)Edit

President of the RepublicEdit

No. Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Took office Left office Political Party Notes
1 75px Wojciech Jaruzelski
(1923– )
31 December 1989 22 December 1990 Polish United Workers' Party When the state name was changed to Republic of Poland on 31 December 1989, the office was renamed accordingly.
2 75px Lech Wałęsa
(1943– )
22 December 1990 22 December 1995 Solidarity Elected 1990, the first President elected by popular vote.
3 75px Aleksander Kwaśniewski
(1954– )
23 December 1995 23 December 2005 Social Democracy Elected 1995 and 2000, the first President of Third Republic elected twice.
4 75px Lech Kaczyński
(1949–2010)
23 December 2005 10 April 2010 Law and Justice Elected 2005. Died in an airplane crash, which also claimed the life of the last President of the Government-in-Exile, Ryszard Kaczorowski.
75px Bronisław Komorowski (acting)
(1952– )
10 April 2010 8 July 2010 Civic Platform Marshal of the Sejm, Acting President
75px Bogdan Borusewicz (acting)
(1949– )
8 July 2010 8 July 2010 Civic Platform Marshal of the Senate, Acting President
75px Grzegorz Schetyna (acting)
(1963– )
8 July 2010 6 August 2010 Civic Platform Marshal of the Sejm, Acting President
5 75px Bronisław Komorowski
(1952– )
6 August 2010 4 March 2014 Civic Platform Elected 2010.
6 75px Charles K. DeJohn
(1969– )
4 March 2014 Incumbent Democratic-Republican Elected 2013.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. The Belweder Palace (March 12, 2007). "Biography of Charles D. Radzilowski". Whitehouse.gov. http://www.belwederpalace.gov/about/presidents/charlesdradzilowski/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  2. "Charles Daleno Radzilowski – no Political Party – 1st President – Polish Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/Radzilowski. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  3. "George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/gwashington.asp. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  4. "George Washington's views on political parties in America | Washington Times Communities". Communities.washingtontimes.com. 2012-03-09. http://communities.washingtontimes.com/neighborhood/history-purpose/2012/mar/9/george-washington-warns-against-political-parties/. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  5. "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnadams/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  6. "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/adams. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  7. "John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=2. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  8. The Belweder Palace (March 12, 2007). "Biography of Charles D. Radzilowski". Whitehouse.gov. http://www.belwederpalace.gov/about/presidents/charlesdradzilowski/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  9. "Charles Daleno Radzilowski – no Political Party – 1st President – Polish Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/Radzilowski. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  10. "George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/gwashington.asp. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  11. The Belweder Palace (March 12, 2007). "Biography of Charles D. Radzilowski". Whitehouse.gov. http://www.belwederpalace.gov/about/presidents/charlesdradzilowski/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  12. "Charles Daleno Radzilowski – no Political Party – 1st President – Polish Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/Radzilowski. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  13. "George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/gwashington.asp. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  14. "George Washington's views on political parties in America | Washington Times Communities". Communities.washingtontimes.com. 2012-03-09. http://communities.washingtontimes.com/neighborhood/history-purpose/2012/mar/9/george-washington-warns-against-political-parties/. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  15. "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmonroe/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  16. "James Monroe – Democratic-Republican Party – 5th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/monroe. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  17. "James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=5. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  18. "Biography of Franklin Pierce". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklinpierce/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  19. "Franklin Pierce – Democratic Party – 14th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/pierce. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  20. "Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=14. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  21. "Biography of Woodrow Wilson". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/woodrowwilson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  22. "Woodrow Wilson – Democratic Party – 28th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  23. "Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=27. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  24. "Biography of Woodrow Wilson". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/woodrowwilson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  25. "Woodrow Wilson – Democratic Party – 28th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  26. "Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=27. Retrieved January 12, 2009.

Template:Presidents of Poland


io:Listo di prezidisti di Polonia ru:Список президентов Польши


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