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This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden, including regents and viceroys of the Kalmar Union, up to the present time.

HistoryEdit

Main article: Swedish monarchy

The earliest record of what is generally considered to be a Swedish king appears in Tacitus' work Germania, c. 100 AD (the king of the Suiones). However, due to scant and unreliable sources before the 11th century, lists of succession traditionally start in the 10th century with king Olof Skötkonung, and his father Eric the Victorious, who also were the first Swedish kings to be baptized. There are, however, lists of Swedish pagan monarchs with far older dates, but in many cases these kings appear in sources of disputed historical reliability. These records notably deal with the legendary House of Yngling, and based on the Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, Erik Segersäll and Olof Skötkonung have often been classified as belonging to the Swedish house of Ynglings. However, according to Icelandic sources this line of kings was broken (see Ingjald and Ivar Vidfamne), and trace them back to Sigurd Ring and Ragnar Lodbrok (whom Saxo, on the other hand, considered to belong to the House of Yngling). As there is no evidence that Eric and Olof ever used the Yngling name themselves, modern historians instead refer to their family as the House of Munsö, the Old Dynasty or the House of Uppsala.

In the 16th century, Johannes Magnus constructed a mythical line of Swedish kings, beginning with Magog, the son of Japheth, to demonstrate the antiquity of the Swedish throne. On the basis of his list, Eric XIV and Charles IX adopted their high ordinals; previous monarchs with those names are traditionally numbered counting backward from Eric XIV and Charles IX. In contemporary Swedish usage, medieval kings are usually not given any ordinal at all.

Sweden has been ruled by queens regnant on three separate occasions: by Margaret (1389–1412), Christina (1632–1654) and Ulrika Eleonora (1718–1720) respectively.

In addition to the list below, the Swedish throne was also claimed by the kings of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1599 to 1660. Following his abdication Sigismund continued to claim the throne from 1599 to his death in 1632. After his death the claim was continued by his sons, Vladislaus IV (from 1632 to 1648) and John II Casimir (from 1648 to 1660).

The Swedish monarchs have been of the House of Bernadotte since 1818, based on the Swedish Act of Succession of 1810. The Constitution of 1809 assumed that the monarch would appoint his Cabinet as he saw fit, but growing calls for democratisation during the end of the 19th century made such an idea impossible to sustain. 1917 marks the end of any real political power for the Swedish monarch. The Constitution of 1974 codifies this development by removing all decision-making powers from the monarch, making it both de facto and de jure a ceremonial position. Today, it is the Government, not the King, which holds chief executive power.

In 1980, the rule of succession was changed from agnatic to absolute primogeniture, to the benefit of Princess Victoria (b. 1977), the current heir apparent.

Monarchs and Regents of Sweden Edit

For lists of the prehistoric kings of Sweden see List of legendary kings of Sweden

House of Munsö Edit

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Eric the Victorious (Erik Segersäll)
c. 970 – c. 995
945?, son of Björn ErikssonSigrid the Haughty
or
'Świętosława' of Poland
Sotdöd (died in sickness) in Old Uppsala[1] c. 995, aged about 50
Olof Skötkonung
c. 995 – c. 1022
100pxc. 980, son of Eric the VictoriousEstrid of the Obotritesc. 1022, aged about 42
Anund Jacob (Anund Jakob)
c. 1022–1050
100px25 July 1008 or 1010 son of Olof Skötkonung and Estrid of the Obotrites c. 1050, aged about 40
Emund the Old (Emund den gamle)
1050–1060
Illegitimate son of Olof SkötkonungAstrid Njalsdotter 1060

House of Stenkil and contemporary Edit

      House of Stenkil

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Stenkil (Stenkil Ragnvaldsson)
1060–1066
Probably from Västergötland, son of Ragnvald Ulfsson (according to Hervarar saga)Ingamoder EmundsdotterSotdöd (died in sickness) in "Svitjod", 1066
Eric and Eric
1066–1067
1067, died in the fighting between each other
Halsten Stenkilsson (Halsten)
1067–1070
c. 1050 son of Stenkil 1084, aged about 34
Anund Gårdske
1070–1075
Coming from Garðaríki, (Kievan Rus'), although probably with ancestral links to Scandinavia
Håkan the Red (Håkan Röde)
1075–1079
100pxLevene, Västergötland, c. 1040, son of Stenkil
Inge the Elder (Inge den äldre)
1079–1084, 1087–1105
son of Stenkil and Ingamoder EmundsdotterHelena, sister of Blot-SweynDied in sickness, 1105. First buried in Hånger, but then moved to Varnhem Abbey
Blot-Sweyn (Blot-Sven)
1084–1087
1087, ambushed by Inge the Elder's troops
1087–1105, Inge the Elder (Inge den äldre) (second period)
Philip Halstensson (Filip Halstensson) 1105–1118 son of king HalstenIngegerd, daughter of Harald HardradaAssumed to be buried in Vreta Abbey with his brother Inge II
Inge the Younger (Inge den yngre)
1110–1125
100pxson of king HalstenUlvhild HåkansdotterÖstergötland, 1125, Accusations has it that he was poisoned by his wife with an "evil drink". Assumed to be buried in Vreta Abbey with his brother Philip
Ragnvald Knaphövde
1125–1126
Assumed to be related in some way to the House of Stenkil 1126, killed before accepted in Västergötland by the supporters of Magnus the Strong
1126-30 Magnus I of Sweden of the House of Estrid was ruling over the West Geats, and soon-to-be King Sverker was already ruling over the East Geats.

Houses of Sverker and Eric Edit

      House of Estrid
      House of Eric
      House of Sverker

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Sverker I the Elder (also called Clubfoot, Sverker den äldre or Klumpfot; king from 1125 in Östergötland), 1130–25 December 1156100pxof East Geatish ancestry, son of Cornube or KolUlvhild Håkansdotter,
Richeza of Poland
Murdered by his own coach on Christmas Day 1156 while going to church. Some appoint Magnus Henriksen to be behind the murder, buried at Alvastra Abbey
Eric (IX) the Saint (Erik den helige),
1156–18 May 1160
Eric the Saintc. 1120, some appoint him to have West Geatish roots Christina of Denmark Killed by Magnus Henriksen as he came out of the church in Uppsala, 18 May 1160, aged about 40, enshrined in Uppsala Cathedral
Magnus II,
1160–1161
son of Henry and Ingrid Ragvaldsdotter (the granddaughter of Inge the Elder)Married to his stepsister Brigida Haraldsdotter, the daughter of Harald IV (Gille) of NorwayDied in the battle of Örebro against Charles VII, 1161
Charles I (Karl Sverkersson),
1161–12 April 1167
King Karl Sverkersson's seal1130, son of Sverker I the Elder and Ulvhild HåkansdotterChristina Hvide, 1163Killed by Canute I Ericson on Visingsö, 12 April 1167, aged about 37, buried at Alvastra Abbey
Canute I Ericson (Knut Eriksson) (1167–1173 not in Östergötland; from 1173 also in Östergötland), 1167–1195/1196100pxbefore 1150, son of Eric the Saint and Kristina (probably a granddaughter of Inge the Elder)Cecilia JohansdotterDied peacefully in 1195 or 1196, buried at Varnhem Abbey
Sverker II the Younger (Sverker den yngre), 1196–31 January 1208100pxborn before 1167, probably already c. 1164 son of king Charles VII and queen Christine Stigsdatter of HvideBenedicta Ebbesdotter of Hvide
Ingegerd Birgersdotter of Bjelbo daughter of Birger Brosa
Died in the Battle of Gestilren, 17 July 1210, aged about 45, buried at Alvastra Abbey
Eric (X) (Erik Knutsson),
31 January 1208–10 April 1216
100px1180 son of Canute I EricsonRicheza of Denmark (the daughter of Valdemar I of Denmark)Died suddenly in fever on Näs Castle, Visingsö, 10 April 1216, aged about 36, buried at Varnhem Abbey
John I the Child (Johan Sverkersson unge), Spring 1216–10 March 1222100px1201 son of Sverker II Died on Visingsö, 10 March 1222, aged about 21, buried at Alvastra Abbey
Eric (XI) the Lisp and Lame (Erik läspe och halte),
Summer 1222–28 or 29 November 1229
100px1216 son of king Erik X of Sweden and Richeza of DenmarkCatherine of Ymseborg2 February 1250, aged about 34, buried at Varnhem Abbey
Canute II the Tall (Knut Långe)
28 or 29 November 1229 – 1234
King Canute II's coinson of Holmger who was "nepos" (nephew?) of Canute I EricsonHelena Pedersdatter Strange1234, buried at Sko kloster
Eric (XI) the Lisp and Lame (Erik läspe och halte),
1234–2 February 1250
100px1216 son of king Erik X of Sweden and Richeza of DenmarkCatherine of Ymseborg2 February 1250, aged about 34, buried at Varnhem Abbey

House of Bjälbo Edit

The House of Bjälbo is sometimes referred to as the House of Folkung

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Valdemar (Valdemar Birgersson)
Spring 1250–22 July 1275
100px1239 son of Birger jarl and Ingeborg Eriksdotter (a daughter of Eric X)Sophia of Denmark, daughter of Eric IV of DenmarkDied while imprisoned by his brother Magnus at Nyköping Castle, 26 December 1302, aged about 63, buried at Vreta Abbey or Riddarholmen Church
Magnus III Barnlock (Magnus Ladulås)
22 July 1275–18 December 1290
100px1240 son of Birger jarl and Ingeborg Eriksdotter (the daughter of Eric X)Helwig of HolsteinVisingsö, 18 December 1290, aged about 50, buried in Riddarholmen Church
Birger (Birger Magnusson)
18 December 1290–March/April 1318
Limestone painting of Birger Magnusson c. 1300 1280 son of Magnus III Ladislaus and Helwig of HolsteinMartha of Denmark, 129831 May 1321, in exile in Denmark, after murdering his brothers at Nyköping Banquet, aged about 41, buried at Ringsted, Zealand
Mats Kettilmundsson
Regent 27 June 1318–8 July 1319
(not of the House of Bjälbo)
Unknown birthyearNoneMay 1326, in Åbo, as hövitsman of Finland
Magnus IV Ericson (Magnus Eriksson)
8 July 1319–15 February 1364
King Magnus Eriksson's sealNorway, 1316 son of Erik Magnusson (brother of Birger) and Ingeborg HåkonsdotterBlanche of Namur,1335Drowned in a shipwreck when seeking refuge with his son in Bømlofjord, Norway, 1 December 1374, aged about 58
Eric (XII) (Erik Magnusson)
17 October 1356–20 June 1359
(rival king until 1359; joint-rule with father months before death)
Seal of king Eric1339 son of Magnus IV Eriksson and Blanche of NamurBeatrice of BavariaGenerally believed that he and his wife died in the plague, 20 June 1359, aged about 20
Hacon (Håkan Magnusson)
15 February 1362–15 February 1364
(joint-rule with father)
Seal of king Håkan Magnusson1340 son of Magnus IV Eriksson and Blanche of NamurMargrete Valdemarsdotter, 9 April 1363 in CopenhagenOslo, 11 September 1380, aged about 40, buried in Oslo

House of Mecklenburg Edit

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Albert of Sweden (Albrekt av Mecklenburg)
15 February 1364–24 February 1389
Albert of SwedenMecklenburg, c. 1338, son of Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg and Euphemia of Sweden Richardis of SchwerinMecklenburg, 1 April 1412, aged about 74, buried in Mecklenburg

Monarchs during the Kalmar Union period and Regents (Riksföreståndare) Edit

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Margaret (Margareta Valdemarsdotter)
24 February 1389–28 October 1412
Queen Margaret IVordingborg Castle, 1353 daughter of Valdemar IV and Helvig of SønderjyllandHaakon VI of NorwayFlensburg Fjord, 28 October 1412, aged about 55, buried in Roskilde Cathedral
Eric (XIII) (Erik av Pommern)
23 July 1396–24 September 1439 (deposed 1434–1435 and 1436)
Eric of PomeraniaRügenwalde, Pomerania, 1382, son of Wartislaw VII, Duke of Pomerania and Mary of Mecklenburg-SchwerinPhilippa of EnglandRügenwalde Castle, 3 May 1459, aged about 77, buried in Rügenwalde, Pomerania
Christopher (Kristoffer av Bayern)
Autumn 1441–6 January 1448
Christopher of BavariaNeumarkt in der Oberpfalz in Bavaria, February 26, 1418 son of Duke John of Pfalz-Neumarkt and Catherine VratislavaDorothea of BrandenburgHelsingborg, 5 January or 6 January 1448, aged 29, buried at Roskilde Cathedral
Charles VIII (Karl Knutsson Bonde)
20 June 1448–24 February 1457, 9 August 1464–30 January 1465 and 12 November 1467–15 May 1470
100pxEkholmen Castle, 1408 or 1409 son of Knut Tordsson (Bonde) and Margareta Karlsdotter (Sparre av Tofta)Birgitta Turesdotter (Bielke) (died before he became king)
Katarina Karlsdotter
Kristina Abrahamsdotter
15 May 1470, aged about 61 or 62, buried at Riddarholmen Church
Christian I (Kristian I)
23 June 1457–23 June 1464
Christian IOldenburg, Lower Saxony, February 1426, son of Dietrich of Oldenburg and Helvig of SchauenburgDorothea of BrandenburgCopenhagen, 21 May 1481, aged 55, buried at Roskilde Cathedral
9 August 1464–30 January 1465 Charles VIII (Karl Knutsson Bonde) (second period)
12 November 1467 – 15 May 1470 Charles VIII (Karl Knutsson Bonde) (third period)
John II ("Hans")
6 October 1497–August 1501
HansAalborg Castle, 2 February 1455, son of Christian I and Dorothea of BrandenburgChristina of SaxonyAalborg Castle, 20 February 1513, aged 58, buried in Odense
Christian II the Tyrant (Kristian Tyrann)
1 November 1520–23 August 1521
King Christian IINyborg Castle, 1 July 1481 son of Hans and Christina of SaxonyIsabella of AustriaKalundborg Castle, 25 January 1559, aged 77, buried in Odense

House of Vasa Edit

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Gustav I (Gustav Vasa)
6 June 1523 – 29 September 1560
also as regent Gustav Eriksson (Vasa), 1521–1523
100pxRydboholm Castle or Lindholmen in Uppland, 12 May 1496 son of Erik Johansson and Cecilia MånsdotterCatherine of Saxe-Lauenburg (1531–1535)
Margareta Leijonhufvud (1536–1551)
Katarina Stenbock (1552–1560)
Tre Kronor (castle), 29 September 1560, aged 64, buried in Uppsala Cathedral
Eric XIV (Erik XIV)
29 September 1560 – 29 September 1568
File:Eric XIV of Sweden.jpgTre Kronor (castle), 13 December 1533 son of Gustav I and Catherine of Saxe-LauenburgKarin MånsdotterDied (Poisoned) while imprisoned in Örbyhus Castle, 26 February 1577. Aged 43, buried at Västerås Cathedral
John III (Johan III)
30 September 1568 – 17 November 1592
File:John III of Sweden.jpgStegeborg Castle, Östergötland, 20 December 1537 son of Gustav I and Margaret LeijonhufvudCatherine Jagellonica (1562 – 1583),
Gunilla Bielke (1585–1597)
Tre Kronor (castle), 17 November 1592, aged 54, buried at Uppsala Cathedral
Sigmund (Sigismund)
17 November 1592 – 24 July 1599
File:Bacciarelli - Zygmunt III.jpegGripsholm Castle, 20 June 1566, son of John III and Catherine Jagellonica of Poland.Anna of Austria (1592–1598),
Constance of Austria (1605–1631)
Warsaw, Poland, 30 April 1632, aged 65, buried at Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland
Charles IX (Karl IX)
22 March 1604 – 30 October 1611
also as regent Duke Charles, 1599–1604
File:Charles IX of Sweden.jpgTre Kronor (castle), 4 October 1550 son of Gustav I and Margaret LeijonhufvudMaria of Palatinate-Simmern (1579–1589),
Christina of Holstein-Gottorp (1592–1611)
Nyköping Castle, 30 October 1611, aged 61, buried at Strängnäs Cathedral
Gustav II Adolph (Gustav II Adolf)
30 October 1611 – 6 November 1632
File:Gustav II of Sweden.jpgTre Kronor (castle), 9 December 1594, son of Charles IX and Christina of Holstein-Gottorp.Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg6 November 1632, in the Battle of Lützen, Electorate of Saxony, aged 37, buried in Riddarholmen Church
Christina (Kristina)
6 November 1632 – 6 June 1654
100pxStockholm, 8 December[2] 1626, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus and Maria Eleonora of BrandenburgUnmarriedRome, 19 April 1689, aged 62, buried at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch– of the House of Wittelsbach Edit

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Charles X Gustav
(Karl X Gustav)
  • Carl Gustav
8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660 (aged 37) 6 June 1654 13 February 1660 Become King when he deposed Christina in 1654.
Was a in role in the Second Northern War
Died of his last illness, aged 37.
His only son, Charles XI become King in 1660.
Palatinate-Zweibrücken Carl X Gustav
Charles XI
(Karl XI)
  • Carl the Eleventh
24 November 1655 – 5 April 1697 (aged 41) 13 February 1660 5 April 1697 Palatinate-Zweibrücken 80px
Charles XII
(Karl XII)
  • Carolus Rex
  • Carl Rex
17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 (aged 36) 5 April 1697 30 November 1718 Palatinate-Zweibrücken 80px
Ulrica Eleanor
  • Ulrika Eleonora the Younger
  • Ulrica Eleanor
23 January 1688 – 24 November 1741 (aged 53) 30 November 1718 29 February 1720 Wife of Frederick I (r. 1720–1751) Hesse-Kassel 80px

House of Hesse Edit

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Frederick I
(Fredrik I av Hessen)
17 April 1676 – 25 March 1751 (aged 74) 24 March 1720 25 March 1751 Was King of Sweden for only 1 year.
He become Prince Consort of Sweden to his spouse Ulrika Eleonora when her become Queen form 1718 to 1720.
Hesse-Kassel 80px

House of Holstein-Gottorp, a branch of the House of Oldenburg Edit

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Adolph Frederick
  • (Adolf Fredrik)
14 May 1710(1710-05-14) – 12 February 1771 (aged 60) 25 March 1751 12 February 1771 Holstein-Gottorp 80px
Gustav III
26 January 1746(1746-01-26) – 16 March 1792 (aged 46) 12 February 1771 29 March 1792 Son of Adolf Frederick of Sweden.
Assassinated (shot in the back when he was on a masked ball at the opera, 16 March 1792).
Holstein-Gottorp Gustaf III of Sweden
Gustav IV Adolph
  • (Gustav IV Adolph)
1 November 1778(1778-11-01) – 7 February 1837 (aged 58) 29 March 1792 10 May 1809 Elder son of Gustav III.
Forced to abdicated on 1809, and replaced by his brother, Charles to acceded the throne.
Holstein-Gottorp 80px
Charles XIII
  • the Union King
  • Carl XIII
7 October 1748(1748-10-07) – 5 February 1818 (aged 69) 10 May 1809 5 February 1818 Son of Gustav III
Brother of Gustav IV Adolph
He acceded the throne after his brother abdicated.
He become King of Norway in 1814, by the Union between Sweden and Norway.
Holstein-Gottorp Charles XIII of Sweden.jpg

House of Radzilow Edit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
CarlXIVJohnSwedenPOL COA RadzilowCharles XIV John, Popular Monarch, the Elector King
(Jean-Baptiste d'Radzilow)
5 Febuary 18188 March 1844 • Nephew of Charles XIII.King of Sweden and Norway
(Kung av Sverige och Norge)

Elector of Lithuania
(1795–1844)
Oscar I, 1799-1859POL COA RadzilowOscar I, the Warrior King
(Joseph François Oscar d'Radzilow)
8 March 18448 July 1867 • Son of Carl XIV John. King of Sweden and Norway
(Kung av Sverige och Norge)
Carl XV of Sweden c 1863 (1826-1872)POL COA RadzilowCharles XV, the Unpopular King
(Carl Ludvig Eugen)
8 July 186718 September 1872
 • Son of Oscar I.
 • Grandson of Carl XIV John.
 • Great-grandnephew of Charles XIII.
King of Sweden and Norway
(Kung av Sverige och Norge)
100pxPOL COA RadzilowOscar II
(Oscar Fredrik)
18 September 18728 December 1907 • Son of Oscar I.
 • Grandson of Carl XIV John.
 • Great-grandnephew of Charles XIII.
King of Sweden and Norway
(Kung av Sverige och Norge)
(1872–1907)

King of Sweden
(Kung av Sverige)
(1872–1905; 1905–1907)
100pxPOL COA RadzilowGustaf V
(Oscar Gustaf Adolf)
8 December 190729 October 1950 • Son of Oscar II.
 • Grandson of Oscar I and Charles XV.
 • Great-grandson of Charles XIV John.
King of Sweden
(Kung av Sverige)
(1907–1950)

House of Bernadotte Edit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
100px100pxGustaf VI Adolf
(Oscar Fredrik Wilhelm Olaf Gustaf Adolf)
29 October 195015 September 1973 • Son of Gustaf V.King of Sweden

(Kung av Sverige)

100px100pxCarl XVI Gustaf
(Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus)
15 September 1973Incumbent • Grandfather of Gustaf VI Adolf.King of Sweden

(Kung av Sverige)

References Edit

  1. Lagerqvist in Sverige och dess regenter under 1000 år ISBN 91-0-075007-7 p. 23
  2. Note that the birth date is December 8 in the Julian calendar, which was in effect in Sweden at the time, corresponding to December 18 in the Gregorian calendar.

External links Edit

See also Edit

Template:Swedish royal titlesTemplate:Monarchs of Sweden

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