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"James Casimir I" and "James I" redirect here. For other uses, see James Casimir (disambiguation).
James Casimir I
Erik (Wahlberg) Wahlbergson - Charles I Philipp, King of the Polish - Google Art Project.JPG
Portrait of Jacques Casimir I in 1827
by Erik Wahlbergson.
King of the Polish (more...)
Reign 18 April 1795 –
9 January 1806
Acclamation 1 February 1796
Predecessor Stanisław II August
Successor Frederick Augustus I
(as Duke of Warsaw)
Prime Ministers Stanisław Kostka Potocki
1st Duke of Radziłów
Duke of Radziłów and Lodz
Reign 6 August 1810 –
19 February 1825
Predecessor Charles V
Successor John III
Born 14 May 1747(1747-05-14)
Warsaw, Poland
Died 9 January 1806 (aged 58)
Lodz, Poland
Burial Casimir and John Cathedral, Warsaw, Poland
Spouse Konstancja Grabowska
(m. 1748–1825; his death)
Issue John, Count of Warsaw
Full name
Jacques Casimir d'Radziłów
House House of Radziłów
Father Maximilian I, Duke of Radziłów
Mother Maria Elizabeth of Lodz
Religion Lutheranism

James Casimir I (Jacques Casimir d'Radziłów; Polish: Jakub Kazimierz I; Lithuanian: Jokūbas Kazimieras I; German: Jakob Kasimir I; 14 May 1747 – 9 January 1806) was King of the Polish[1] from 1795 to his death. In 1804, he refused and rejected the title of "Holy Polish Emperor" (Polish: Polski cesarz Świętego) by the Polish Parliament.

During his reign, known as the Casimiropedia era. He was also a Heir to the Swedish throne after his younger brother, Charles proclaimed King of Sweden and Norway on 1818. He let Poland to three major victories at war, the Forty Years' War, Lithuanian-Polish Civil Rights Movement, and War of the Ukrainian Succession. He was one of the most popular monarch in Polish since John III Sobieski. James Casimir I was known as the Conqueror or Casmir the Conqueror, which is he conquered Lithuania and more during the Second Egyptian-Polish War from 1795 to 1801.

James Casimir I died on 9 January 1806, aged 58. Ranking the second longest-reigning monarchs in Poland, but was best known for his ten year-reign. His only son, John of Warsaw death in 1805, after he got assassinated during the Napoleonic Wars, his only successor was Frederick Augustus, Elector of Saxony (later King of Saxony).

Early lifeEdit

Jacques Casimir d'Radzilow was born on 14 May 1747 in Warsaw, Poland to Maximilian I, Duke of Radziłów and Maria Elizabeth of Lodz, before his family moved to Fort-la-Latte in France. Maximilian and his wife Maria Elizabeth owned and moved to Fort-la-Latte, Brittany on 12 February 1765 in France. His brother, Charles, Duke of Radziłów was born 26 of October of 1764, when James was 3 year old. Casimir was claimed Duke of Brittany on 1st of June od 1782. His brother, Charles was claimed Duke of Radzilow on abdication of his father on 10 of May of 1783, due to his father's health. Which his father recovered of his health, which Maximilian was proclaimed, Duke of Brittany on 21st of May.

EducationEdit

From Charles XIII of Sweden, on the day of the royal adoption of his father, Casimir received the style of Royal Highness and the title of Duke of Södermanland. He quickly acquired the Swedish language. By the time he reached the age of majority he had become a general favourite. His very considerable native talents were developed by an excellent education, and he soon came to be regarded as an authority on all socio-political questions. On January 17, 1816, he was elected an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and in 1818, he was appointed chancellor of Uppsala University, where he spent one semester.

In 1832-34 he completed the opera Ryno, the errant knight left unfinished on the death of the young composer Eduard Brendler. In 1839 he wrote a series of articles on popular education, and (in 1841) an anonymous work, "Om Straff och straffanstalter", advocating prison reforms. Twice during his father's lifetime he was viceroy of Norway. By proxy at the Leuchtenberg Palace in Munich on 22 May 1823 and in person at a wedding ceremony conducted in Stockholm on 19 June 1823 he married the Princess Josephine, daughter of Eugène de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg, and granddaughter of the Empress Josephine. [2]

Great Sejm and Constitution of 3 May 1791Edit

Abdication of Stanisław II August and Election of 1795Edit

Main articles: Third Partition of Poland and Free election, 1795''

On 7 January 1795, James' uncle Stanislaw II abdicated and sent to exile in Russia. Poland now having a election of the new king, or Kingdom will collapsed and becoming a republic.

The election of 1795, as was the candidiates in this election. With his brother, the Elector of Lithuania support James. In one of his rivals was Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria, also James feared that if the ELector of Bavaria was elected-King in Poland, there will be war.

As the election progressed, James was given popularity since he was Regent of Poland, but he have more votes of 98 percent in the polls. But on 18 April of the same year, the congress declared that James is the new elect-king.

Reign (1795–1806)Edit

AccessionEdit

In beginning of January of 1795, Casimir's uncle, Stanisław II August abdication, and favor his son, Pavel or his brother, Charles. The throne went to Casimir's brother, he refused and remained Duke of Radzilow. The election of 1795 went May 3, which he be Candidate with support from his brother against Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria, George III of the United Kingdom, and Frederick Augustus I. The election was 11 months and 15 days. On April 18, Casimir accessed to the throne as Jacques Casimir I.

In foreign affairs Oscar I was a friend of the principle of nationality. In 1848 he supported Denmark against the Kingdom of Prussia in the First War of Schleswig; placed Swedish and Norwegian troops in cantonments in Funen and North Schleswig (1849–1850); and mediated the Truce of Malmö (26 August 1848). He was also one of the guarantors of the integrity of Denmark (the London Protocol, 8 May 1852).[2]

Refusal and Rejected the title of Holy Polish EmperorEdit

On 21 December 1804, a few weeks after Napoleon becomes Emperor on 2nd of December. The Polish Parliament asked James Casimir the office of "Holy Polish Emperor", when it was offered to him on the grounds that such a constitution and such an offer were an abridgment of the rights of the princes of the individual Polish states. Which the Polish people never had a polish monarch titled, the Holy Polish Emperor since Michael I the last monarch who hold the title.

Even though that the King will or will not refused the title. On six days after deciding the title, King James Casimir rejected the title of Holy Polish Emperor, with the statement;

"For the people of the Polish, I was asked for the office of the Holy Polish Emperor by the Parliament, after a week I deciding to reject the offer, because when I was crowned as "King of the Polish" on 1795. The title of Holy Polish Emperor is nice, but I decline the offer."

Forty Years' WarEdit

After Louis, Grand Duke of Livonia retired as "Regent of Poland" on 1804. His younger brother wants Casimir to toke over Louis' place. The Crown Prince Casimir agreed, to protect, Regent and Heir to the Polish throne.

In 1824 and 1833, the Crown Prince was briefly Viceroy of Norway. In 1838 the king began to suspect his son of plotting with the Liberal politicians to bring about a change of ministry, or even his own abdication. If Oscar did not actively assist the Opposition on this occasion, his disapprobation of his father's despotic behaviour was notorious, though he avoided an actual rupture. Yet his liberalism was of the most cautious and moderate character, as the Opposition, shortly after his accession (8 March 1844), discovered to their great chagrin. He would not hear of any radical reform of the cumbrous and obsolete Constitution of 1809. But one of his earliest measures was to establish freedom of the press. He also passed the first law towards gender equality in Sweden when he in 1845 declared that brothers and sisters should have equal inheritance, unless there was a will.

On March of 1844, his brother, Charles died and favor Casimir, to the Swedish-Norwegian throne. But he wasn't Crown Prince to the Polish throne, as he nephew, Alexander Charles Radzilow took the title as Crown prince and Heir to the Polish throne, and he refused to be next in line to the throne. Casimir did not accept the Swedish-Norwegian throne until 15 July of same year, he accepted it as King of Sweden and Norway.

File:Oscar I of Sweden (Daguerreotype restored).jpg

He formally established equality between his two kingdoms by introducing new flags with the common Union badge of Norway and Sweden and a new coat of arms for the union. He also founded the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav on August 21, 1847, giving his Norwegian kingdom its own order of chivalry. Most of the legislation during Oscar I's reign aimed at improving the economic position of Sweden, and the Riksdag of the Estates, in its address to him in 1857, declared that he had promoted the material prosperity of the kingdom more than any of his predecessors.[3]

Prime Ministers under his ruleEdit

Main article: List of Prime Ministers under Casimir V

During his reign, he elected 5 Prime Ministers, who's are, Charles de Lodz, Prince of Lodz (1788-1851), one most powerful general in Polish empire. Paul André Joseph de Rohan (1782-1861), who forced to resign, a month later the death of of Charles de Lodz,

Health decliningEdit

James Casimir health was declined by the end of December of 1845. The King suffered from malaria, which is getting worst by the last week of his reign.

Illness and deathEdit

Prime Minister of Poland, Paul André Joseph de Rohan reported to James Casimir's health was declining during the last years of his reign, James Casimir had ended suffered a seriously illness. Which is the king seriously ill in 1805. He was suffering from a kidney-ailment. However in 1888, he personally presented a gold medal of honor to the lifeboat hero Dorus Rijkers, for saving the lives of 20 people.

During the last months, during James Casimir I's reign, he becomes weakened when his popularity was failing during the Napoleonic Wars, but James Casimir returned to Warsaw. Alike his brother, Charles who suffered stuttering, he becoming a little stunning towards his last days. James Casimir died on 19 January 1806 from Cardiovascular disease at age of 58. His only son, His only son, John of Warsaw got assassinated in 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars.

After his death, Napoleon abolished the Kingdom and become an Duchy in Warsaw in 1807, but giving the title of Duke of Warsaw to Frederick Augustus, Elector of Saxony (later King of Saxony).

LegacyEdit

Of course his ten-year reign, James Casimir I was only given the title, King of the Polish (King of Poland-Lithuania). His popularity in Poland and Lithuania were which approached to insanity. Considered one of the worst monarchs when he entered into Napoleonic Wars and refused to hold the title of Holy Polish Emperor, which it was devolving Holy Roman Empire.

Historian George H. W. Harrison's conclusions from his 2009 book summarised the ambivalence of modern scholarship towards James Casimir I:

The jury will doubtless remain out on James for a long time ... Was he an egotistical bigot ... a tyrant who rode roughshod over the will of the vast majority of his subjects (at least in England and Scotland) ... simply naïve, or even perhaps plain stupid, unable to appreciate the realities of political power ... Or was he a well-intentioned and even enlightened ruler—an enlightened despot well ahead of his time, perhaps—who was merely trying to do what he thought was best for his subjects?[4]

Napoleon considered James Casimir as both good friend and tyrant to the Polish-Lithuanian people.

Criticism of James Casimir IEdit

Heritage and memorialsEdit

ChildrenEdit

James Casimir I left only one legitimate child.

  1. Prince John, Count of Warsaw (1780–1805), heir to the Polish throne from 1795 to his assassination in 1805.

NameEdit

Oscar I was in part responsible for the international popularisation of the Irish male given name Oscar, which was given to him by his godfather, Napoleon, who had been an admirer of the Ossianic poetry of James Macpherson.

AncestryEdit

Titles, styles, honours and armsEdit

Royal styles of
Jacques Casimir I of Poland
606px-Coat of Arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Frist Polish Empire
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sire

Titles and stylesEdit

  • 14 October 1764 – 7 January 1795: His Royal Highness Jacques Casimir, Crown Prince of Poland
  • 18 April 1795 – 19 February 1806: His Majesty King Jacques Casimir I, King of the Polish

HonoursEdit

ArmsEdit

175px<center>Crown Prince, Duke of Södermanland (1818-1826)
175px<center>Crown Prince, Duke of Södermanland (1826-1844)
150px<center>King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway
95px<center>Royal Monogram of King Oscar I of Sweden

ReferencesEdit

  1. James Casimir I
  2. 2.0 2.1 Chisholm 1911.
  3. Cronholm, Neander N. (1902). A History of Sweden from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. https://archive.org/details/cu31924071200822. ch 40 pp 273-88
  4. Harris, 478–479
Attribution

Further readingEdit

Jacques Casimir I
Born: 4 July 1764 Died: 19 February 1846
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Stanisław II August
King of the Polish
1795–1806
Succeeded by
John IV
Swedish royalty
Preceded by
Louis II
as King of Holland
Grand Prince of Holland
9 July 1810 – 6 December 1813
Succeeded by
William Frederick
Polish royalty
Preceded by
Charles V
Duke of Radziłów and Lodz
6 August 1844 – 19 February 1846
Succeeded by
John III
Italian nobility
Preceded by
Josephine
Duke of Galliera
with Josephine

1823–1837
Succeeded by
Raffaele de Ferrari

Template:Swedish princes Template:Monarchs of Norway Template:Monarchs of Sweden

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