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Not to be confused with Roman emperor.
For the racehorse, see Holy Roman Emperor (horse).
Emperor of
the Holy Roman Empire
Romanorum Imperator
Imperial
Holy Roman Empire Arms-double head
Double-headed Reichsadler used by the Habsburg emperors of the early modern period
Ludwig Streitenfeld 001
Last in Office
Francis II
5 July 1792 – 6 August 1806
Formation 25 December 800
Abolition 6 August 1806
Style His Imperial Majesty
First monarch Charlemagne
Last monarch Francis II
Appointer see Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor
Current pretender Position abolished

The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 CE, from Charlemagne to Francis II). The title was almost without interruption held in conjunction with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany.[1][2][3]

From an autocracy in Carolingian times the title evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors. The Holy Roman Emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right by Roman Catholic rulers in Europe, and he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs. In practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him. There was never a Holy Roman Empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa of Austria served as de facto Empresses regnant.

After the Reformation, many of the subject states in Germany turned Protestant while the Emperor continued to be a Roman Catholic. Until the Reformation, the Emperor elect (imperator electus) was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title.[citation needed] Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became hereditary holders of the title. In particular the Habsburgs kept the longest possession of the title. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor as a result of the collapse of the polity during the Napoleonic wars.

TitleEdit

File:Wapen 1545 Kaiserwappen des Heiligen Römischen Reichs Polychromie.jpg

From the time of Constantine I (4th century) the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity[citation needed]. The title of Emperor became defunct in Western Europe after the deposition of Julius Nepos in AD 480, although the rulers of the "barbarian kingdoms" continued to recognize the Eastern Emperor at least nominally well into the 6th century; both the title and connection between Emperor and Church continued in the Eastern Roman Empire until 1453, when it fell to the forces of the Ottoman Empire.

In the west, the title of Emperor (Imperator) was revived in 800, which also renewed ideas of imperial–papal cooperation. As the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages, popes and emperors came into conflict over church administration. The best-known and most bitter conflict was that known as the investiture controversy, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII.

After Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) by Pope Leo III, his successors maintained the title until the death of Berengar I of Italy in 924. No pope appointed an emperor again until the coronation of Otto the Great in 962. Under Otto and his successors, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. The various German princes elected one of their peers as King of the Germans, after which he would be crowned as emperor by the Pope. After Charles V's coronation, all succeeding emperors were called elected Emperor due to the lack of papal coronation, but for all practical purposes they were simply called emperors.[citation needed]

The term sacrum (i.e., "holy") in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa.[4] Charles V was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope (1530). The final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empire's final dissolution.

The standard designation of the Holy Roman Emperor was "August Emperor of the Romans" (Romanorum Imperator Augustus). When Charlemagne was crowned in 800, he was styled as "most serene Augustus, crowned by God, great and pacific emperor, governing the Roman Empire," thus constituting the elements of "Holy" and "Roman" in the imperial title.[5]

The word Roman was a reflection of the principle of translatio imperii (or in this case restauratio imperii) that regarded the (Germanic) Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, despite the continued existence of the Eastern Roman Empire.

In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser ("Roman-German emperor") is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, and that of German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) on the other. The English term "Holy Roman Emperor" is a modern shorthand for "emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" not corresponding to the historical style or title, i.e., the adjective "holy" is not intended as modifying "emperor"; the English term "Holy Roman Emperor" gains currency in the interbellum period (1920s to 1930s); formerly the title had also been rendered "German-Roman emperor" in English.[6][7]

SuccessionEdit

File:Balduineum Wahl Heinrich VII.jpg

The elective monarchy of the kingdom of Germany goes back to the early 10th century, the election of Conrad I of Germany in 911 following the death without issue of Louis the Child, the last Carolingian ruler of Germany. Elections meant the kingship of Germany was only partially hereditary, unlike the kingship of France, although sovereignty frequently remained in a dynasty until there were no more male successors. The process of election meant that the prime candidate had to make concessions, by which the voters were kept on side, which were known as Wahlkapitulationen (electoral capitulation).

Conrad was elected by the German dukes, and it is not known precisely when the system of seven prince-electors was established. The papal decree Venerabilem by Innocent III (1202), addressed to Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen, establishes the election procedure by (unnamed) princes of the realm, reserving for the pope the right to approve of the candidates. A letter of Pope Urban IV (1263), in the context of the disputed vote of 1256 and the subsequent the interregnum, suggests that by "immemorial custom", seven princes had the right to elect the King and future Emperor. The seven prince-electors are named in the Golden Bull of 1356: The Archbishop of Mainz, the Archbishop of Trier, the Archbishop of Cologne, the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony and the Margrave of Brandenburg.

After 1438, the Kings remained in the house of Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine, with the brief exception of Charles VII, who was a Wittelsbach. Maximilian I (Emperor 1508–1519) and his successors no longer travelled to Rome to be crowned as Emperor by the Pope. Maximilian therefore named himself Elected Roman Emperor (Erwählter Römischer Kaiser) in 1508 with papal approval. This title was in use by all his uncrowned successors. Of his successors only Charles V, the immediate one, received a papal coronation.

The Elector Palatine's seat was conferred on the Duke of Bavaria in 1621, but in 1648, in the wake of the Thirty Years' War, the Elector Palatine was restored, as eighth elector. Brunswick-Lüneburg was added as ninth elector in 1692. The whole college was reshuffled in the German mediatization of 1803, a mere three years before the dissolution of the Empire.

List of EmperorsEdit

See also: List of German monarchs

This list includes all 47 German monarchs crowned from Charlemagne until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806).

Several rulers were crowned King of the Romans (King of Germany) but not emperor, although they styled themselves thus, among whom were: Conrad I of Germany and Henry the Fowler in the 10th century, and Conrad IV, Rudolf I, Adolf and Albert I during the interregnum of the late 13th century.

Traditional historiography assumes a continuity between the Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, while a modern convention takes the coronation of Otto I in 962 as the starting point of the Holy Roman Empire (although the term Sacrum Imperium Romanum was not in use before the 13th century).

Frankish EmperorsEdit

The rulers who were crowned as Emperors in the West before 962 were as follows:

Carolingian dynastyEdit

Main article: Carolingian dynasty
Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
File:Charlemagne denier Mayence 812 814.jpg Charles I, the Great (Charlemagne)
(742–814)
25 December 800 28 January 814
File:Ludwik I Pobożny.jpg Louis I, the Pious
(778–840)
11 September 813[8] 20 June 840 Son of Charles I
File:Lothar I.jpg Lothair I
(795–855)
5 April 823 29 September 855 Son of Louis I
100px Louis II
(825–875)
29 September 855 12 August 875 Son of Lothair I
File:Карл Лысый.jpg Charles II, the Bald
(823–877)
29 December 875 6 October 877 Son of Louis I
100px Charles III, the Fat
(839–888)
12 February 881 13 January 888 Grandson of Louis I

Widonid dynastyEdit

Main article: Widonids
Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
100px Guy I
(?–894)
891 12 December 894 Great-great grandson of Charles I
Lambert I
(880–898)
30 April 892 15 October 898 Son of Guy I

Carolingian dynastyEdit

Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
File:Seal of Arnulph of Carinthia (896).jpg Arnulph
(850–899)
22 February 896 8 December 899 Nephew of Charles III

Bosonid dynastyEdit

Main article: Bosonids
Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
Louis III, the Blind
(880–928)
22 February 901 21 July 905 Grandson of Louis II

Unruoching dynastyEdit

Main article: Unruochings
Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
File:Berengar I on a seal.jpg Berengar I
(845–924)
December 915 7 April 924 Grandson of Louis I

Holy Roman EmperorsEdit

There was no emperor in the west between 924 and 962.

While earlier Germanic and Italian monarchs had been crowned as western Roman Emperors, the actual Holy Roman Empire is usually considered to have begun with the crowning of the Saxon king Otto I. It was officially an elective position, though at times it ran in families, notably the four generations of the Salian dynasty in the 11th century. The first elected Holy Roman Emperors was the English-French House of Plantagenet. From the end of the Salian dynasty through the middle 15th century, the Emperors drew from many different German dynasties, and it was rare for the throne to pass from father to son. That changed with the ascension of the Austrian House of Habsburg, as an unbroken line of Habsburgs would hold the Imperial throne until the 18th century, later a cadet branch known as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine would likewise pass it from father to son until the abolition of the Empire in 1806. Notably, the Habsburgs also dispensed with the requirement that emperors be crowned by the pope before exercising their office. Starting with Ferdinand I, all successive Emperors forwent the traditional coronation.

Ottonian dynastyEdit

Main article: Ottonian dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
100px Otto I, the Great
(912–973)
2 February 962 7 May 973 Great-great-great grandson of Louis I  • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
 • Duke of Saxony
100px Otto II, the Red
(955–983)
25 December 967 7 December 983 Son of Otto I  • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
100px Otto III
(980–1002)
21 May 996 23 January 1002 Son of Otto II  • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
100px Henry II[9]
(973–1024)
7 June 1002 14 February 1014 Second cousin of Otto III  • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
 • Duke of Bavaria

Salian dynastyEdit

Main article: Salian dynasty
Portrait Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
100px Conrad II, the Elder[10]
(990–1039)
26 March 1027 4 June 1039 Great-great-grandson of Otto I  • King of Burgundy
 • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
Henry III (HRE) Henry III, the Black
(1017–1056)
25 December 1046 5 October 1056 Son of Conrad II  • King of Burgundy
 • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
Heinrich 4 g Henry IV
(1050–1116)
31 March 1084 7 August 1106 Son of Henry III  • King of Burgundy
 • King of Italy
 • King of Germany
Henry V edit Henry V[11]
(1086–1125)
13 April 1111 23 May 1125 Son of Henry IV  • King of Italy
 • King of Germany

Supplinburg dynastyEdit

Portrait Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
100px Lothair II[12]
(1075–1137)
4 June 1133 4 December 1137 Far descendant of Otto I  • King of Italy
 • King of Germany

Staufen dynastyEdit

Main article: Hohenstaufen

The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages. When the last male member of the Salian dynasty, Emperor Henry V, died without heirs in 1125, a controversy arose about the succession.

Frederick I, known as Frederick Barbarossa because of his red beard, struggled throughout his reign to restore the power and prestige of the German monarchy against the dukes, whose power had grown both before and after the Investiture Controversy under his Salian predecessors. As royal access to the resources of the church in Germany was much reduced, Frederick was forced to go to Italy to find the finances needed to restore the king's power in Germany. He was soon crowned emperor in Italy, but decades of warfare on the peninsula yielded scant results. The Papacy and the prosperous city-states of the Lombard League in northern Italy were traditional enemies, but the fear of Imperial domination caused them to join ranks to fight Frederick. Under the skilled leadership of Pope Alexander III, the alliance suffered many defeats but ultimately was able to deny the emperor a complete victory in Italy. Frederick returned to Germany. He had vanquished one notable opponent, his Welf cousin, Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony and Bavaria in 1180, but his hopes of restoring the power and prestige of the monarchy seemed unlikely to be met by the end of his life.

During Frederick's long stays in Italy, the German princes became stronger and began a successful colonization of Slavic lands. Offers of reduced taxes and manorial duties enticed many Germans to settle in the east in the course of the Ostsiedlung. Frederick died in 1190 while on the Third Crusade and was succeeded by his son, Henry VI. Elected king even before his father's death, Henry went to Rome to be crowned emperor. He married Queen Constance of Sicily, and deaths in his wife's family gave him claim of succession and possession of the Kingdom of Sicily in 1189 and 1194 respectively, a source of vast wealth. Henry failed to make royal and Imperial succession hereditary, but in 1196 he succeeded in gaining a pledge that his infant son Frederick would receive the German crown. Faced with difficulties in Italy and confident that he would realize his wishes in Germany at a later date, Henry returned to the south, where it appeared he might unify the peninsula under the Hohenstaufen name. After a series of military victories, however, he fell ill and died of natural causes in Sicily in 1197. His underage son Frederick could only succeed him in Sicily and Malta, while in the Empire the struggle between the House of Staufen and the House of Welf erupted once again.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
Frederick I (HRE) Armoiries Famille Hohenstaufen Frederick I, Barbarossa
(1122–1190)
8 June 1155 10 June 1190 Great-grandson of Henry IV  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • King of Burgundy
100px Armoiries Famille Hohenstaufen Henry VI
(1165–1197)
14 April 1191 28 September 1197 Son of Frederick I  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • King of Burgundy
 • Co-King of Sicily

Welf dynastyEdit

Main article: House of Welf

The House of Welf is the older branch of the House of Este, a dynasty whose earliest known members lived in Lombardy in the late 9th/early 10th century, sometimes called Welf-Este. The first member was Welf I, Duke of Bavaria; he inherited the property of the Elder House of Welf when his maternal uncle Welf III, Duke of Carinthia and Verona, the last male Welf of the Elder House, died in 1055. Welf IV was the son of Welf III's sister Kunigunde of Altdorf and her husband Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan. In 1070, Welf IV became duke of Bavaria.

Welf II, Duke of Bavaria married Countess Matilda of Tuscany, who died childless and left him her possessions, including Tuscany, Ferrara, Modena, Mantua, and Reggio, which played a role in the Investiture Controversy. Since the Welf dynasty sided with the Pope in this controversy, partisans of the Pope came to be known in Italy as Guelphs (Guelfi). Otto of Brunswick was one of two rival kings of Germany (another was King Philip of Swabia) from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and crowned Holy Roman Emperor from 1209. His reign wasn't good that he spend rest of his reign conflicts with Philip of Swabia and Pope Innocent III which leads that he was forced to abdicate in 1215.

Portrait Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
Otto IV (HRE) Otto IV
Otto of Brunswick
(1175–1218)
9 June 1198 1215 Great-grandson of Lothair II

Staufen dynastyEdit

Main article: House of Hohenstaufen
Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Others Title(s)
Franz Kampers - Kaiser Friedrich II - Der Wegbereiter der Renaissance - Abbildung 17 Armoiries Famille Hohenstaufen Frederick II
Stupor Mundi
(1194–1250)
22 November 1220 13 December 1250 Son of Henry VI

House of LusignanEdit

Main article: House of Lusignan

Henry came to an agreement with Batila in November 1253 with the signing of the Treaty of Nancy, where Henry recognised Prince Conrad, husband of Bathila and her father Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, as the heir-apparent to the throne in lieu of his own son, who had died that August. The royal house descended from Matilda and Geoffrey is widely known by two names, the House of Anjou (after Geoffrey's title as Count of Anjou) or the House of Plantagenet, after his sobriquet. Some historians prefer to group the subsequent kings into two groups, before and after the loss of the bulk of their French possessions, although they are not different royal houses.

The Lusignans ruled over the Lusignan Empire during the 13th and 14th centuries, an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Italy. They did not regard Holy Roman Empire as their primary home until most of their continental domains were lost by Sigismund. Though the Lusignan dynasty was short-lived, their male line descendants included the House of Plantagenet, the House of Lancaster and the House of York.

The Lusignans formulated the Holy Roman Empire's coats of arms, which usually showed other kingdoms held or claimed by them or their successors, although without representation of Germany for quite some time. They adopted the arms from Emperor Otto IV from the House of Welf, even though the Lusignans had been put themselves of the House of Plantagenet.

Portrait Coat of arms Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
Conrad III (HRE) Armoiries empereur ConradIIIer Conrad III
Conrad Artusmeile
(1233–1289)
25 May 1254 9 July 1289 Son-in-law of Emperor Frederick II
Seal of Conrad IV, Holy Roman Emperor Armoiries empereur ConradIIIer Conrad IV
Conrad Pious
(1256–1301)
7 October 1289 1 November 1301 Son of Conrad III and far descendant of Louis III
Otto V von Plantagenet, Speyer 1 Armoiries empereur ConradIIIer Albert I
Albert of Liechtenstein
(1259–1312)
2 August 1301 26 December 1312 Son of Conrad III and brother of Conrad IV

Disputed claimant Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine briefly de facto ruled about half of the Holy Roman Empire from May 1267 to his assassination on 1st February 1283, during the Duke's War of 1267 against Conrad III. During the civil war, Frederick's relationship with Conrad III, become decreased within the years, as well he doesn't supported Conrad succeeded to the imperial throne in 1254.

Portrait Coat of arms Name Reign Claim
Frederico III da Lorena Blason Lorraine Frederick III
(1239–1283)
3 May 1267 1 February 1283 Rightful claim

House of LuxembourgEdit

Main article: House of Luxembourg
Portrait Coat of arms Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
Henry Lux head Armoiries Henri VII de Luxembourg Henry VIII
Henry of Luxembourg
(1275–1313)
29 June 1312 24 August 1313 Great x11 grandson of Charles II

House of WittelsbachEdit

Main article: House of Wittelsbach
Portrait Coat of arms Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
100px Arms of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV, the Bavarian
(1282–1347)
October 1314 11 October 1347 Far descendant of Lothair II  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • Duke of Bavaria

House of PlantagenetEdit

Portrait Coat of arms Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
Charles-John Ocko votive picture-fragment
Holy Roman Emperor
Blason Boheme Shield and Coat of Arms of the Holy Roman Emperor (c.1200-c.1300)
Coats of arms
Charles IV
(1316–1378)
11 July 1346 29 November 1378 Great-great grandson of Charles IV  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • King of Bohemia
 • Count of Luxemburg
Zikmund Zhořelecka radnice
Holy Roman Emperor
75px 75px
Coats of arms
Sigismund
(1368–1437)
10 September 1410 9 December 1437 Son of Wenceslaus  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary and Croatia

House of HabsburgEdit

Main article: House of Habsburg
Portrait Coat of arms Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
100px 100px Frederick III, the Peaceful
(1415–1493)
2 February 1440 19 August 1493 Far descendant of Lothair II  • King of Germany
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Maximilian I
(1459–1519)
19 August 1493 12 January 1519 Son of Frederick III  • King of Germany
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Charles V
(1500–1558)
28 June 1519 16 January 1556 Grandson of Maximilian I  • King of Germany
 • King of Italy
 • Archduke of Austria
 • King of Spain
 • Lord of the Netherlands and Duke of Burgundy
100px 100px Ferdinand I
(1503–1564)
16 January 1556 25 July 1564 Grandson of Maximilian I  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Maximilian II
(1527–1576)
25 July 1564 12 October 1576 Son of Ferdinand I  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Rudolph II[13]
(1552–1612)
12 October 1576 20 January 1612 Son of Maximilian II  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Matthias
(1557–1619)
23 January 1612 20 March 1619 Son of Maximilian II  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Ferdinand II
(1578–1637)
20 March 1619 15 February 1637 Grandson of Ferdinand I  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Ferdinand III
(1608–1657)
15 February 1637 2 April 1657 Son of Ferdinand II  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Leopold I
(1640–1705)
6 March 1657 5 May 1705 Son of Ferdinand III  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px Arms of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor (variant) Joseph I
(1678–1711)
5 May 1705 17 April 1711 Son of Leopold I  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary
 • King of Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Charles VI
(1685–1740)
12 October 1711 20 October 1740 Son of Leopold I

House of WittelsbachEdit

Portrait Coat of arms Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor 100px Charles VII
(1697–1745)
12 February 1742 20 January 1745 Great-great grandson of Ferdinand II  • King of Bohemia
 • Elector of Bavaria

House of Habsburg-LorraineEdit

Main article: House of Lorraine
Portrait Coat of arms Name Reign Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
100px 100px Francis I
(1708–1765)
13 September 1745 18 August 1765 Son-in-law of Charles VI  • King of Germany
 • Archduke of Austria
 • Grand Duke of Tuscany
 • Duke of Lorraine
100px 100px Joseph II
(1741–1790)
19 August 1765 20 February 1790 Son of Francis I  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary and Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
100px 100px Leopold II
(1747–1792)
21 February 1790 1 March 1792 Brother of Joseph II  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary and Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria
 • Grand Duke of Tuscany
100px 100px Francis II
(1747–1792)
4 March 1792 6 August 1806 Son of Leopold II  • King of Germany
 • King of Bohemia
 • King of Hungary and Croatia
 • Archduke of Austria

CoronationEdit

See also: Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor and Papal appointment

The Emperor was crowned in a special ceremony, traditionally performed by the Pope in Rome. Without that coronation, no king, despite exercising all powers, could call himself Emperor. In 1508, Pope Julius II allowed Maximilian I to use the title of Emperor without coronation in Rome, though the title was qualified as Electus Romanorum Imperator ("elected Emperor of the Romans"). Maximilian's successors adopted the same titulature, usually when they became the sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.[14] Maximilian's first successor Charles V was the last to be crowned Emperor.

Emperor Coronation date Officiant Location
Charles I 25 December 800 Pope Leo III Rome, Italy
Louis I 5 October 816 Pope Stephen IV Reims, France
Lothair I 5 April 823 Pope Paschal I Rome, Italy
Louis II 15 June 844 Pope Leo IV Rome, Italy
Charles II 29 December 875 Pope John VIII Rome, Italy
Charles III 12 February 881 Rome, Italy
Guy III of Spoleto 21 February 891 Pope Stephen V Rome, Italy
Lambert II of Spoleto 30 April 892 Pope Formosus Ravenna, Italy
Arnulf of Carinthia 22 February 896 Rome, Italy
Louis III 15 or 22 February 901 Pope Benedict IV Rome, Italy
Berengar December 915 Pope John X Rome, Italy
Otto I 2 February, 962 Pope John XII Rome, Italy
Otto II 25 December, 967 Pope John XIII Rome, Italy
Otto III 21 May, 996 Pope Gregory V Monza, Italy
Henry II 14 February 1014 Pope Benedict VIII Rome, Italy
Conrad II 26 March 1027 Pope John XIX Rome, Italy
Henry III 25 December 1046 Pope Clement II Rome, Italy
Henry IV 31 March 1084 Antipope Clement III Rome, Italy
Henry V 13 April 1111 Pope Paschal II Rome, Italy
Lothair III 4 June 1133 Pope Innocent II Rome, Italy
Frederick I 18 June 1155 Pope Adrian IV Rome, Italy
Henry VI 14 April 1191 Pope Celestine III Rome, Italy
Otto IV 4 October 1209 Pope Innocent III Rome, Italy
Frederick II 22 November 1220 Pope Honorius III Rome, Italy
Conrad III 27 September 1243 Pope Innocent IV Frankfurt, HRE
Conrad IV 12 August 1282 Pope Martin IV Frankfurt, HRE
Albert I 24 December 1301 Pope Boniface VIII Frankfurt, HRE
Henry VII 29 June 1312 Ghibellines cardinals Rome, Italy
Louis IV 17 January 1328 Senator Sciarra Colonna Rome, Italy
Charles IV 5 April 1355 Pope Innocent VI's cardinal Rome, Italy
Sigismund 31 May 1433 Pope Eugenius IV Rome, Italy
Frederick III 19 March 1452 Pope Nicholas V Rome, Italy
Charles V 24 February 1530 Pope Clement VII Bologna, Italy

See alsoEdit

Template:Wikipedia books

ReferencesEdit

  1. Peter Hamish Wilson, The Holy Roman Empire, 1495–1806, MacMillan Press 1999, London, page 2
  2. Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn: The Menace of the Herd or Procrustes at Large – Page: 164
  3. Robert Edwin Herzstein, Robert Edwin Herzstein: The Holy Roman Empire in the Middle Ages: universal state or German catastrophe?
  4. Peter Moraw, Heiliges Reich, in: Lexikon des Mittelalters, Munich & Zurich: Artemis 1977–1999, vol. 4, columns 2025–2028.
  5. Bryce, James (1968). The Holy Roman Empire. Macmillan. p. 530.
  6. The New International Encyclopædia vol. 10 (1927), p. 675
  7. Carlton J. H. Hayes, A Political and Cvltvral History of Modern Europe vol. 1 (1932), p. 225.
  8. Egon Boshof: Ludwig der Fromme. Darmstadt 1996, p. 89
  9. Enumerated as successor of Henry I who was German King 919–936 but not Emperor.
  10. Enumerated as successor of Conrad I who was German King 911–918 but not Emperor
  11. Barraclough, Geoffrey (1984). The Origins of Modern Germany. W. W. Norton & Company. Template:Citation/identifier. https://books.google.com/books?id=RY6VmGuAaCkC&pg=PA131&lpg=PA131&dq=supplinburg+dynasty&source=web&ots=RsLwH_MnGU&sig=EFPN-WhCOTcfJD4WsWDk39dsGl4.
  12. Enumerated as successor of Lothair II, who was King of Lotharingia 855–869 but not Emperor
  13. Enumerated as successor of Rudolph I who was German King 1273–1291.
  14. ” Wir Franz der Zweyte, von Gottes Gnaden erwählter römischer Kaiser Imperator Austriae, Fransiscus I (1804), Allerhöchste Pragmatikal-Verordnung vom 11. August 1804, The HR Emperor, p. 1
ja:神聖ローマ皇帝一覧

ru:Список императоров Священной Римской империи