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A commander-in-chief is the person exercising supreme command authority of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces. In the latter case, the force element may be defined as those forces within a particular region or those forces which are associated by function. As a practical term it refers to the military competencies that reside in a nation-state's executive, Head of State and/or Head of Government. Often, a given country's commander-in-chief need not be or have been a commissioned officer or even a veteran, and it is by this legal statute that civilian control of the military is realized in states where it is constitutionally required.

The role of commander-in-chief derives from the Latin, imperator. Imperatores (commanders-in-chief) of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire possessed imperium (command) powers. In its modern usage, the term was first used by King Charles I of England in 1639. A nation's head of state usually holds the position of national commander-in-chief, even if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. Colonial governors are also often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces in their colonies. Examples are Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces North, or Commander-in-Chief East Atlantic.

A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as Supreme Commander, which is sometimes used as a specific term. The term is also used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship, and as a subordinate (usually) to a head of state. The term is also used for officers that hold authority over individual branches or within a theatre of operations[1]

List of French CommandersEdit

Napoleonic Wars and Polish-Austrian WarEdit

Name Photo Term began Term ended Notes
1st Kasimirwiza d'Ellison
16 February 1789 – 14 December 1843
(aged 44)
Portrait of Kasimir I (Dragoon Officer Uniform) 13 June 1805 14 December 1843 Emperor & King of the Polish and King of Sweden (1804-1843)
Succeeded by: Jean de Guohan
2nd Jean de Guohan
25 July 1775 – 12 January 1868
(aged 93)
General Jean de' Guohan 14 December 1843 12 January 1868 Preceded by: Kasimirwiza d'Ellison
General under Kasimirwiza d'Ellison
Succeeded by:

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