"Charles IV and I" redirects here. For other kings, see King Charles (disambiguation). For other uses, see Charles I (disambiguation). For other uses, see Charles IV (disambiguation).
Charles IV and I
Charles I Henry Andras-HosokTere-Budapešť 0066.jpg
Statue of Charles I Henry (later Emperor Charles IV) of the Millennium Monument in (Budapest).
King of Hungary and Croatia
Reign 21 September 1235 – 5 June 1274
Coronation 14 October 1235
Predecessor Andrew II
Successor Stephen V
Holy Roman Emperor;
King of Italy
Reign 2 February 1264 – 9 November 1274[1]
Coronation 24 October 1265, Aachen
Predecessor Richard of Cornwall
as King of the Romans
Successor Henry VII
Born 26 November 1209(1209-11-26)
Winchester Castle, Hampshire, England
Died 4 June 1274 (aged 64)
Nuremberg Castle, Nuremberg, Holy Roman Empire
Burial Speyer Cathedral, Speyer, Holy Roman Empire
Spouse Bartilmebis of Arce
Issue Illegitimate:
House Plantagenet
Father John, King of England
Mother Isabella of Angoulême
Religion Roman Catholicism[2]

Charles IV, also known as Charles Henry (German: Karl IV; Hungarian: Károly Henrik; Croatian: Karlo Henri; 26 November 1209 – 5 June 1274), ruled as Duke of Swabia, Earl of York, King of Hungary and King of Croatia (1235–1274), later first elected Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy from (1264–1274)[1]; Charles was the third child and youngest son of John, King of England and Isabella of Angoulême. During his military career, he was best known for the Sixth and Barons' Crusades.

Chosen by the Hungarian parliament as King of Hungary in 21 September 1235 and crowned in Szekesfehervar on 14 October. He seriously wounded and survived first Assassination attempt in 1241. His cooperation with King Bolesław V the Chaste, which making are allies of the Kingdom of Poland. The Mongols invaded Hungary and annihilated Charles's army in the Battle of Mohi on 11 April 1241. He escaped from the battlefield, but a Mongol detachment chased him from town to town as far as Trogir on the coast of the Adriatic Sea. Although he survived the invasion, the Mongols devastated the country before their unexpected withdrawal in March 1242. Charles succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Romans after death of his older brother Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, giving support of the subjects of the Holy Roman Empire. Thus making the Romano-Hungarian alliance in 1267, also known the Holy Roman Empire and Kingdom of Hungary alliance treaty.

He had introduced radical reforms in order to prepare his kingdom for a second Mongol invasion. He allowed the barons and the prelates to erect stone fortresses and to set up their private armed forces. He promoted the development of fortified towns. During his reign, he was famously mostly known as the "Hammer of Christianity"[3], thousands of colonists arrived from the Holy Roman Empire, Poland and other neighboring regions to settle in the depopulated lands. Charles's efforts to rebuild his devastated country won him the epithet of "second founder of the state" (Hungarian: második honalapító). He set up a defensive alliance against the Mongols, which included Daniil Romanovich, Prince of Halych, Boleslaw the Chaste, Duke of Cracow and other Ruthenian and Polish princes. His allies supported him in occupying the Duchy of Styria in 1254, but it was lost to King Ottokar II of Bohemia six years later. A wide buffer zone—which included Bosnia, Barancs (Braničevo, Serbia) and other newly conquered regions—was established along the southern frontier of Hungary in the 1250s.

Charles's relationship with his oldest son and heir, Stephen, became tense in the early 1260s, because the elderly king favored his daughter Anna and his youngest child, Béla, Duke of Slavonia. He was forced to cede the territories of the Kingdom of Hungary east of the river Danube to Stephen, which caused a civil war lasting until 1266. On the fall of 1270, Charles's health decline during his last years in his reign with suffered pains in his stomach. Charles IV died on 5 June 1274, at aged 64 and was buried in Speyer Cathedral, Speyer in Holy Roman Empire. The Hungarian throne was inherited by his son Stephen V and the Imperial throne was inherited by his younger son, Henry VII.

Heritage and early life

Franz Kampers - Portrait of Kaiser Karl IV (1236) - Google Art Project

Prince Charles, 1st Earl of York (later Emperor Charles IV), aged 16, in 1225.

Charles Plantagenet was born in morning hours at 7:24am on 26 November 1209 at Winchester Castle, the third youngest son of John, King of England and Isabella of Angoulême. Like his immediate older brother, Henry who was become King of England on 1216, as while his other brother, Richard who held the title of Earl of Cornwall. Burgundian King Otto of Brunswick had been crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III in 1209. In southern Italy, Otto became the champion of those noblemen and barons who feared Frederick's increasingly strong moves against them, exemplified by the firing of the pro-noble Walter of Palearia. The new emperor invaded Italy, where he reached Calabria without meeting much resistance.

In the meantime, Charles was the heir to the Imperial throne, which inherited the title of Duke of Swabia in 1216 and Earl of York in 1218. As he was the member of the Plantagenet royal family. Charles supported Richard which elected King of the Romans on 13 January 1220 after the death of Emperor Frederick II. Both Richard and Henry III wants Charles to be the next King of the Romans and the future Emperor. However, Charles's cousin, the King of France Louis VIII the Lion were made the Pretender to the English throne.[4] As Prince of the English Crown (along side with Richard, who become King of Germany), Charles were teached how to fight with swords, and how to ride.

Prince Charles, 1st Earl of York was also learned how to speak Latin, Sicilian, German, French, Greek and Arabic at the ages of twelve to nineteen. He also learned to start to crusader lessons about King Richard I of England who was an Crusader into his young times. From his Angevins ancestors he inherited an ambiguous relationship with the Kings of England. As well his Capets ancestors and cousins, Kings Louis VIII the Lion and Louis IX, the Saint-King.

Speaking seven languages (English, Latin, Sicilian, German, French, Greek and Arabic[5]), saw the first use of a literary form of an Italo-Romance language, Sicilian. The poetry that emanated from the school had a significant influence on literature and on what was to become the modern Italian language.[6]

Military career and Crusader

Prince Charles IV d'York, an Crusader by Aleksander Lesser

Portrait of Prince Charles (later Charles V and IV) as an crusader by Aleksander Lesser.

Preparation and multiple retreat of the Crusade

Charles was now doubtless the richest magnate in England. His wealth and ambition led him to the fact that Emperor Frederick II (Frederick II), married Richard's sister Isabella, suggested to him in the beginning of 1236 that he would become an anti-French Alliance. Both King Heinrich & nbsp; III. As well as the overwhelming majority of the barons, rejected this proposal. In June 1236 Richard took a crusade vow in Winchester and began to collect the money needed for the warfare to the Holy Land. In January 1237, he imposed a levy of 3000 marks on the English Jews. However, his departure was delayed when, in February 1237, letters from Pope to Richard, Simon de Montfort and William Longespée of Salisbury reached England. In these letters, the Pope warned the crusaders that their departure would jeopardize the security of England, and that they should therefore not be allowed to leave the Crusade without the king's express permission. This is why it is certain that the Pope had written these letters at the king's request. Richard was angry about this delay in the Crusade. His growing displeasure over William of Savoyen and other Savoy-related relatives of Eleonore, the wife of his brother, had an increasing influence on him. These tensions led to an open dispute in January 1238, when [Eleanor of England | Eleanor], the younger sister of him and Henry III. Secretly married Simon de Montfort, who was descended from France. Richard soon joined Gilbert Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, and Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester. Armed, they came together with their vassals in Kingston.

Charles was again ready for rebellion, but he hoped above all that his brother gave him considerable concessions as in 1227 and 1233. At the end of February 1238, the two brothers were actually reconciled. The king, however, had hardly made any concessions to Charles, for his limited financial resources were increasingly claimed by his minions. But even the disaffected barons made the king only a non-committal reform. On the 4th & nbsp; March 1238, Richard stood with the king at her sister's deathbed, the Queen of Scotland. In May King Richard offered 6000 marks for the cost of his crusade. Pope Gregory & nbsp; IX. Richard in April 1238 permitted all the means which had been collected in England for a crusade to be used for his crusade. However, the pope, as well as the emperor Frederick II, who had fought with him, tried to divert Richard's crusade into Italy in order to receive.

After Charles was not ready, the pope tried to direct the crusade against the Latin Imperial Empire into Constantinople. Ultimately, the concern for a war with France delayed Richard's departure. In May 1239, Richard was one of the godfathers of Edward I, the eldest son of Henry III, to whom he lost his position as heir to the throne. He tried to mediate between the King and Gilbert Marshal and Simon de Montfort. In 1239, he spent the Christmas period at Winchester, where he was able to persuade the King to surrender the Earldom of Devon to his ward Baldwin de Revières. In 1240 Richard's wife Isabel died in his childbed, which delayed his departure. In May 1240 Richard was commissioned to negotiate a peace with his successor and the other Welsh princes after the death of Prince Llywelyn from Iorwerth. Then he traveled to London, where on June 5 he ordered the king to oversee his son and heir Henry.

Departure to the Crusade and largely without a fight in the Holy Land

Main article: Barons' Crusade

On June 10, 1240, Charles IV embarked with William Longespée and several dozens of knights, including his former teacher, Peter de Maulay, in Dover. In Paris they were received by King Louis IX and witnessed the renewal of the armistice between England and France. Through the valley of the Rhône they moved to southern France. Pope's agents were trying to get the cruisers to ship from Aigues-Mortes instead of Marseille, and Richard Robert of Thwing, who was known to be an adversary of the pope, went to Rome as ambassador.

In the middle of September, Charles IV finally broke up from Marseilles and reached Akkon on the 8th of October 1240. There he found a confused political situation, as the Christians in the Holy Land differed. Or the local nobles were entitled to the Crown of Jerusalem. For this they disagreed whether the cruisers were to conclude an alliance with the Muslims of Egypt or with the Ayyubids of Damascus who were hostile to Egypt. Charles IV tried to stay out of the internal power struggles. In April 1241 he confirmed a truce concluded with Sultan as-Salih of Egypt. As a result of the armistice, the Egyptians released a series of French captured in the Battle of Gaza, including Aimaury de Montfort, a brother of Simon De Montfort, Thus Charles's crusade had achieved a conditional success. Without any further military action, Charles IV left Outremer in May and landed on Sicily on July 1, 1241 in Trapani.

Stay in Italy and participate in the campaign in Poitou

After his arrival in Italy, Emperor Charles IV traveled to his brother-in-law, John of Arsuf. The Emperor entertained his guest with a series of lavish feasts, and Richard remained at the imperial court for several months. His attempt to reconcile the Emperor and the Pope, however, failed. At the end of 1241 he traveled through Italy to the north. In Cremona an elephant was shown to him. On the 7th & 12th of January, 1242, he returned to Dover, where the king and the queen welcomed him. Subsequently, he triumphantly entered London, but almost immediately afterwards he set out for France to take part in the campaign of his brother in Poitou. In the dispute over the possessions of the English king in the south-west of France, the French King Ludwig, His brother Alfons as Count of Poitiers. As a Titulargraf of Poitou, Richard had to accept this challenge, especially as his mother Isabella of Angoulême and her husband Hugo X of Lusignan, sought an alliance with England against France. Neither Heinrich III. Nor Charles IV could convince the parliament meeting in Westminster to support the campaign with the approval of a tax.

The English army reached the mouth of the Gironde in May 1242. Heinrich III. Led his army hesitantly, and also conducted half-hearted negotiations with the French, before advancing to the County Angoulême in July. He failed to secure the bridge at Taillebourg over the [[Charente] | Charente]]. The superior French army had been drawn by Poitou, and threatened to cut off the British from their bases. When the two armies stood on the banks of the Charente on the 20th & 12th of July, 1242, Richard and Hugo made themselves. Of Lusignan's mutual accusations. Richard accused Hugo of lacking military support, while Lusignan blamed his wife Isabella, the mother of Charles for the situation. In this desperate situation, Charles IV went with weapons and armor, only with a pilgrim's rod across the bridge of Taillebourg to negotiate with the French. Among the French were several nobles, who were freed in Outremer thanks to Richard's efforts in the previous year. Finally, Richard was able to reach a 24-hour cease-fire, prompting the British to leave immediately. The English army withdrew to Saintes and finally to Bordeaux, with which the campaign had failed. Either shortly before or shortly after the debacle in Taillebourg, the king had sealed a document in which he handed over the Gascogne as personal property. This donation gave rise to Queen Eleonore's bitter resentment, which hoped that her eldest son, Edward, would have received the Gascogne as [Apanage]. The king now renounced the award of the Gascogne to Richard, whereupon the Brothers came to a fierce dispute.[7] According to the chronicler Matthew Paris, Kaiser Charles even wanted to be arrested, whereupon he fled Bordeaux in the Churchasyl of the monastery Sainte Croix. On the 22nd of August, the King finally allowed Charles IV to return to the Holy Roman Empire. After confirming this permission on the 2nd September, Charles IV left the Gascogne a few weeks later, while the King remained in France for more than a year. On his way home, Charles IV's ship sank almost in a storm before reaching the Isles of Scilly on October 18, 1242.

The Sixth Crusade

Main article: Sixth Crusade
Al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik and Charles IV Holy Roman Emperor

Charles IV (left) meets Al-Kamil (right).

Emperor Frederick abdicated and was succeeded by Charles, 1st Earl of York, as King of Jerusalem on 1228. He was known as "the Christian Sultan", because of a Christian who was King. Charles was also took the title as "Heir presumptive" to the Imperial throne which his elder brother, Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall become King of the Romans in the following year.

The crusade ended in a truce and in Frederick's coronation as King of Jerusalem on 18 March 1229, although this was technically improper. Frederick's wife Yolande, the heiress, had died, leaving their infant son Conrad as rightful king. There is also disagreement as to whether the 'coronation' was a coronation at all, as a letter written by Frederick to Henry III of England suggests that the crown he placed on his own head was in fact the imperial crown of the Romans.

In any case, Gerald of Lausanne, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, did not attend the ceremony; indeed, the next day the Bishop of Caesarea arrived to place the city under interdict on the patriarch's orders. Frederick's further attempts to rule over the Kingdom of Jerusalem were met by resistance on the part of the barons, led by John of Ibelin, Lord of Beirut. In the mid-1230s, Frederick's viceroy was forced to leave Acre, and in 1244, following a siege, Jerusalem itself was lost again to a new Muslim offensive.

Whilst Frederick's seeming bloodless recovery of Jerusalem for the cross brought him great prestige in some European circles, his decision to complete the crusade while excommunicated provoked Church hostility. Although in 1230 the Pope lifted Frederick's excommunication at the Treaty of Ceprano, this decision was taken for a variety of reasons related to the political situation in Europe. Of Frederick's crusade, Philip of Novara, a chronicler of the period, said "The emperor left Acre [after the conclusion of the truce]; hated, cursed, and vilified."[8] Overall this crusade, arguably the first successful one since the First Crusade, was adversely affected by the manner in which Frederick carried out negotiations without the support of the church. He left behind a kingdom in the Levant torn between his agents and the local nobility, a civil war known as the War of the Lombards.

The itinerant Joachimite preachers and many radical Franciscans, the Spirituals, supported Frederick. Against the interdict pronounced on his lands, the preachers condemned the Pope and continued to minister the sacraments and grant absolutions. Brother Arnold in Swabia proclaimed the Second Coming for 1260, at which time Frederick would then confiscate the riches of Rome and distribute them among the poor, the "only true Christians".[9]

Problems of stability within the empire delayed Frederick's departure on crusade. It was not until 1225, when, by proxy, Frederick had married Yolande of Jerusalem, heiress to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, that his departure seemed assured. Frederick immediately saw to it that his new father-in-law John of Brienne, the current king of Jerusalem, was dispossessed and his rights transferred to the emperor. In August 1227, Frederick set out for the Holy Land from Brindisi but was forced to return when he was struck down by an epidemic that had broken out. Even the master of the Teutonic Knights, Hermann of Salza, recommended that he return to the mainland to recuperate. On 29 September 1227, Frederick was excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX for failing to honor his crusading pledge.[10]

Many contemporary chroniclers doubted the sincerity of Frederick's illness, and their attitude may be explained by their pro-papal leanings. Roger of Wendover, a chronicler of the time, wrote:

he went to the Mediterranean sea, and embarked with a small retinue; but after pretending to make for the holy land for three days, he said that he was seized with a sudden illness… this conduct of the emperor redounded much to his disgrace, and to the injury of the whole business of the crusade.[11]

Frederick eventually sailed again from Brindisi in June 1228. The pope regarded that action as a provocation, since, as an excommunicate, Frederick was technically not capable of conducting a Crusade, and he excommunicated the emperor a second time. Frederick reached Acre in September. Since all the local authorities and most of the military orders denied him any help, and because the crusading army was a meagre force, Frederick negotiated along the lines of a previous agreement he had intended to broker with the Ayyubid sultan, Al-Kamil. The treaty, signed in February 1229, resulted in the restitution of Jerusalem, Nazareth, Bethlehem, and a small coastal strip to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, though there are disagreements as to the extent of the territory returned.[10]

The treaty also stipulated that the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque were to remain under Muslim control and that the city of Jerusalem would remain without fortifications.[10] Virtually all other crusaders, including the Templars and Hospitallers, condemned this deal as a political ploy on the part of Frederick to regain his kingdom while betraying the cause of the Crusaders. Al-Kamil, who was nervous about possible war with his relatives who ruled Syria and Mesopotamia, wished to avoid further trouble from the Christians, at least until his domestic rivals were subdued.

Relationship with Constable John of Arsuf

Since Charles's marriage to the Constable of Jerusalem John of Arsuf's daughter, Bartilmebis of Arce on 21 October 1224, four years earlier to becoming King. Charles's relationship with John of Arsuf was out standing but it could be love and hate relationship between Charles and John.

Reign as King of Hungary

Accession and Coronation

Charles's coronation

Charles I is crowned king (from the Illuminated Chronicle)

Miniature Portrait of Charles I (Chronica Hungarorum)

Miniature Portrait of Charles I by the Chronica Hungarorum.

King Andrew died on 21 September 1235.[12] Béla, who succeeded his father without opposition, was crowned king in Székesfehérvár on 14 October.[12][13] He dismissed and punished many of his father's closest advisors.[14] For instance, he had Palatine Denis blinded and Julius Kán imprisoned.[14][15] The former was accused of having, in King Andrew's life, an adulterous liaison with Queen Beatrix, the King's young widow.[16] Béla ordered her imprisonment, but she managed to escape to the Holy Roman Empire, where she gave birth to a posthumous son, Stephen.[17] Béla and his brother Coloman considered her son a bastard.[18][19]

Béla declared that his principal purpose was "the restitution of royal rights" and "the restoration of the situation which existed in the country" in the reign of his grandfather, Béla III.[20] According to the contemporaneous Roger of Torre Maggiore, he even "had the chairs of the barons burned"[21] in order to prevent them from sitting in his presence during the meetings of the royal council.[14] Béla set up special commissions which revised all royal charters of land grants made after 1196.[20] The annulment of former donations alienated many of his subjects from the King.[14] Pope Gregory IX protested strongly at the withdrawal of royal grants made to the Cistercians and the military orders.[22][18] In exchange for Béla's renouncing of the taking back of royal estates in 1239, the Pope authorized him to employ local Jews and Muslims in financial administration, which had for decades been opposed by the Holy See.[22][23]

After returning from Magna Hungaria in 1236, Friar Julian informed Béla of the Mongols, who had by that time reached the Volga River and were planning to invade Europe.[20] The Mongols invaded Desht-i Qipchaq—the westernmost regions of the Eurasian Steppes—and routed the Cumans.[24] Fleeing the Mongols, at least 40,000 Cumans approached the eastern borders of the Kingdom of Hungary and demanded admission in 1239.[25][26] Béla only agreed to give them shelter after their leader, Köten, promised to convert together with his people to Christianity, and to fight against the Mongols.[25][27][28] However, the settlement of masses of nomadic Cumans in the plains along the Tisza River gave rise to many conflicts between them and the local villagers.[25] Béla, who needed the Cumans' military support, rarely punished them for their robberies, rapes and other misdeeds.[25][29] His Hungarian subjects thought that he was biased in the Cumans' favor, thus "enmity emerged between the people and the king",[30] according to Roger of Torre Maggiore.[31]

Béla supported the development of towns.[12] For instance, he confirmed the liberties of the citizens of Székesfehérvár and granted privileges to Hungarian and German settlers in Bars (Starý Tekov, Slovakia) in 1237.[18] Zadar, a town in Dalmatia which had been lost to Venice in 1202, acknowledged Béla's suzerainty in 1240.[32]

First Assassination attempt

The assassin was an French outlaw, Jean the Tall who was born in France, at the time. Jean the Tall was wanted by French King Louis IX the Saint. Louis warns Emperor Charles IV that Jean the Tall might be within the Holy Roman Empire. Jean the Tall managed to escaped to the Holy Roman Empire. Jean the Tall have been wanted to kill Charles IV since he become King of the Romans since 1229.

On 14 August 1236, the 26-year-old Kaiser Charles IV was exiting Frankfurt to riding in the streets in his free time. He is also wearing an armored with his sword at the time like he always do. Charles IV was stabbed five times while Jean the Tall whispered in his ear while plunging a knife into his abdomen and legs but survived. The wounded Kaiser was in pain and was wounded, Charles IV was lying wounded in the outside of Frankfurt, with his men was in the barracks. The wounds of Charles become weak, which the his body become very weak of his wounds. Charles's did manage to travel to his capital Nuremberg with bleeding arms, stomach and legs.

A day after the assassination attempt, Charles IV was still bleeding of his wounds, which Pope Gregory IX manage to heal Charles IV and give him the blessing. While Charles IV was recovering, Jean the Tall was in shocked that he didn't assassinated the Kaiser. While in hiding, the wounded Charles was proclaimed Jean the Tall a outlaw and wanted; just like French King Louis IX.

While the French outlaw Jean the Tall which the guards and his subjects captured Jean the Tall and put him on trail and face a execution. Charles IV's wounds are badly as he in pain for about a month. Charles recovered after two months, but he will have pain in his stomach and his legs for the rest of his reign.

Mongol invasion of Hungary (1241–42)

The Mongols gathered in the lands bordering Hungary and Poland under the command of Batu Khan in December 1240.[24][32] They demanded Béla's submission to their Great Khan Ögödei, but Béla refused to yield and had the mountain passes fortified.[27][25] The Mongols broke through the barricades erected in the Verecke Pass (Veretsky Pass, Ukraine) on 12 March 1241.[27][32]

Duke Frederick II of Austria, who arrived to assist Béla against the invaders, defeated a small Mongol troop near Pest.[25] He seized prisoners, including Cumans from the Eurasian Steppes who had been forced to join the Mongols.[25] When the citizens of Pest realized the presence of Cumans in the invading army, mass hysteria emerged.[33] The townsfolk accused Köten and their Cumans of cooperating with the enemy.[25] A riot broke out and the mob massacred Köten's retinue.[34] Köten was either slaughtered or committed suicide.[25] On hearing about Köten's fate, his Cumans decided to leave Hungary and destroyed many villages on their way towards the Balkan Peninsula.[35][36]


With the Cumans' departure Béla lost his most valuable allies.[33] He could muster an army of less than 60,000 against the invaders.[37] The royal army was ill-prepared and its commanders—the barons alienated by Béla's policy—"would have liked the king to be defeated so that they would then be dearer to him",[38] according to Roger of Torre Maggiore's account.[33] The Hungarian army was virtually annihilated in the Battle of Mohi on the Sajó River on 11 April 1241.[27][39][40] A great number of Hungarian lords, prelates and noblemen were killed, and Béla himself narrowly escaped from the battlefield.[27] He fled through Nyitra to Pressburg (Nitra and Bratislava in Slovakia).[41] The triumphant Mongols occupied and ravaged most lands to the east of the Danube River by the end of June.[25][41]

Upon Duke Frederick II of Austria's invitation, Béla went to Hainburg an der Donau.[41] However, instead of helping Béla, the Duke forced him to cede three counties (most probably Locsmánd, Pozsony, and Sopron).[41][35] From Hainburg, Béla fled to Zagreb and sent letters to Pope Gregory IX, Emperor Frederick II, King Louis IX of France and other Western European monarchs, urging them to send reinforcements to Hungary.[41] In the hope of military assistance, he even accepted Emperor Frederick II's suzerainty in June.[41] The Pope declared a Crusade against the Mongols, but no reinforcements arrived.[41][42]

The Mongols crossed the frozen Danube early in 1242.[35] A Mongol detachment under the command of Kadan, a son of Great Khan Ögödei, chased Béla from town to town in Dalmatia.[43][44] Béla took refugee in the well-fortified Trogir.[43] Before Kadan laid siege to the town in March, news arrived of the Great Khan's death.[35][45] Batu Khan wanted to attend at the election of Ögödei's successor with sufficient troops and ordered the withdrawal of all Mongol forces.[46][47] Béla, who was grateful to Trogir, granted it lands near Split, causing a lasting conflict between the two Dalmatian towns.[48]

"Second Founder of the State" (1242–61)

Upon his return to Hungary in May 1242, Béla found a country in ruins.[42][47] Devastation was especially heavy in the plains east of the Danube where at least half of the villages were depopulated.[49][50] The Mongols had destroyed most traditional centers of administration, which were defended by earth-and-timber walls.[51] Only well-fortified places, such as Esztergom, Székesfehérvár and the Pannonhalma Archabbey, had successfully resisted siege.[50][51] A severe famine followed in 1242 and 1243.[52][53][54]


Preparation for a new Mongol invasion was the central concern of Béla's policy.[49] In a letter of 1247 to Pope Innocent IV, Béla announced his plan to strengthen the Danube—the "river of confrontations"—with new forts.[55][56] He abandoned the ancient royal prerogative to build and own castles, promoting the erection of nearly 100 new fortresses by the end of his reign.[47][49] These fortresses included a new castle Béla had built at Nagysáros (Veľký Šariš, Slovakia), and another castle Béla and his wife had built at Visegrád.[49]

Béla attempted to increase the number of the soldiers and to improve their equipment.[49] He made land grants in the forested regions and obliged the new landowners to equip heavily armoured cavalrymen to serve in the royal army.[57] For instance, the so-called ten-lanced nobles of Szepes (Spiš, Slovakia) received their privileges from Béla in 1243.[58][59] He even allowed the barons and prelates to employ armed noblemen, who had previously been directly subordinated to the sovereign, in their private retinue.[60] Béla granted the Banate of Szörény to the Knights Hospitaller on 2 June 1247, but the Knights abandoned the region by 1260.[54][61]

File:AlzbetaKumanska kralovna.jpg

To replace the loss of at least 15 percent of the population, who perished during the Mongol invasion and the ensuing famine, Béla promoted colonization.[52][53] He granted special liberties to the colonists, including personal freedom and favorable tax treatment.[62] Germans, Moravians, Poles, Ruthenians and other "guests" arrived from neighboring countries and were settled in depopulated or sparsely populated regions.[63] He also persuaded the Cumans, who had in 1241 left Hungary, to return and settle in the plains along the River Tisza.[59][64] He even arranged the engagement of his firstborn son, Stephen, who was crowned king-junior in or before 1246, to Elisabeth, a daughter of a Cuman chieftain.[64][65]

Béla granted the privileges of Székesfehérvár to more than 20 settlements, promoting their development into self-governing towns.[66] The liberties of the mining towns in Upper Hungary were also spelled out in Béla's reign.[67] For defensive purposes, he moved the citizens of Pest to a hill on the opposite side of the Danube in 1248.[68] Within two decades their new fortified town, Buda, became the most important center of commerce in Hungary.[69][66] Béla also granted privileges to Gradec, the fortified center of Zagreb, in 1242 and confirmed them in 1266.[70][71]

Béla adopted an active foreign policy soon after the withdrawal of the Mongols.[72][73] In the second half of 1242 he invaded Austria and forced Duke Frederick II to surrender the three counties ceded to him during the Mongol invasion.[45] On the other hand, Venice occupied Zadar in the summer of 1243.[45] Béla renounced Zadar on 30 June 1244, but Venice acknowledged his claim to one third of the customs revenues of the Dalmatian town.[45]

Béla set up a defensive alliance against the Mongols.[74] He married three of his daughters to princes whose countries were also threatened by the Mongols.[74] Rostislav Mikhailovich, a pretender to the Principality of Halych, was the first to marry, in 1243, one of Béla's daughters, Anna.[45][75] Béla supported his son-in-law to invade Halych in 1245, but Rostislav's opponent, Daniil Romanovich repulsed their attack.[76]


On 21 August 1245 Pope Gregory freed Béla of the oath of fidelity he had taken to Emperor Frederick during the Mongol invasion.[76] In the following year Duke Frederick II of Austria invaded Hungary.[61] He routed Béla's army in the Battle of the Leitha River on 15 June 1246, but perished in the battlefield.[61][77] His childless death gave rise to a series of conflicts,[73] because both his niece, Gertrude, and his sister, Margaret, made a claim to Austria and Styria.[citation needed] Béla decided to intervene in the conflict only after the danger of a second Mongol invasion had diminished by the end of the 1240s.[78] In retaliation of a former Austrian incursion into Hungary, Béla made a plundering raid into Austria and Styria in the summer of 1250.[79][80] In this year he met and concluded a peace treaty with Daniil Romanovich, Prince of Halych in Zólyom (Zvolen, Slovakia).[79] With Béla's mediation, a son of his new ally Roman married Gertrude of Austria.[81]

Béla and Daniil Romanovich united their troops and invaded Austria and Moravia in June 1252.[81][80] After their withdrawal, Ottokar, Margrave of Moravia—who had married Margaret of Austria—invaded and occupied Austria and Styria.[80] In the summer of 1253, Béla launched a campaign against Moravia and laid siege to Olomouc.[82] Daniil Romanovich, Boleslaw the Chaste of Cracow, and Wladislaw of Opole intervened on Béla's behalf, but he lifted the siege by the end of June.[83] Pope Innocent IV mediated a peace treaty, which was signed in Pressburg (Bratislava, Slovakia) on 1 May 1254.[83] In accordance with the treaty, Ottokar, who had in the meantime become King of Bohemia, ceded Styria to Béla.[83] [84]

File:Hungary 13th cent.png

Béla appointed his son-in-law, Rostislav Mikhailovich Ban of Macsó (Mačva, Serbia) in 1254.[83][85] Rostislav's task was the creation of a buffer zone along the southern borders.[86] He occupied Bosnia already in the year of his appointment and forced Tzar Michael Asen I of Bulgaria to cede Belgrade and Barancs (Braničevo, Serbia) in 1255.[85][87] Béla adopted the title of King of Bulgaria, but he only used it occasionally in the subsequent years.[87]

The Styrian noblemen rose up in rebellion against Béla's governor Stephen Gutkeled and routed him in early 1258.[88] Béla invaded Styria, restored his suzerainty and appointed his oldest son, Stephen, Duke of Styria.[88][89] In 1259, Batu Khan's successor, Berke, proposed an alliance by offering to marry one of his daughters to a son of Béla, but he refused the Khan's offer.[86][87]

Discontented with the rule of Béla's son, the Styrian lords sought assistance from Ottokar of Bohemia.[89] Béla and his allies—Daniil Romanovich, Boleslaw the Chaste, and Leszek the Black of Sieradz—invaded Moravia, but Ottokar vanquished them in the Battle of Kressenbrunn on 12 June 1260.[77][90][91] The defeat forced Béla to renounce Styria in favor of the King of Bohemia in the Peace of Vienna, which was signed on 31 March 1261.[77][92] On the other hand, Ottokar divorced his elderly wife, Margarete of Austria, and married Béla's granddaughter—the daughter of Rostislav Mikhailovich by Anna—Kunigunda.[77][92]

Béla had originally planned to give his youngest daughter, Margaret, in marriage to King Ottokar.[93] However, Margaret, who had been living in the Monastery of the Blessed Virgin on Rabbits' Island, refused to yield.[94][95] With the assistance of her Dominican confessor, she took her final religious vows which prevented her marriage.[93] Infuriated by this act, the King, who had up to that time supported the Dominicans, favored the Franciscans in the subsequent years.[93][94] He even became a Franciscan tertiary, according to the Greater Legend of his saintly sister, Elisabeth.[96]

Civil war (1261–66)


Béla and his son, Stephen jointly invaded Bulgaria in 1261.[92][97][98] They forced Tzar Constantine Tikh of Bulgaria to abandon the region of Vidin.[98] Béla returned to Hungary before the end of the campaign, which was continued by his son.[99]

Béla's favoritism towards his younger son, Béla (whom he appointed Duke of Slavonia) and daughter, Anna irritated Stephen.[100][101] The latter suspected that his father was planning to disinherit him.[102] Stephen often mentioned in his charters that he had "suffered severe persecution" by his "parents without deserving it" when referring to the roots of his conflict with his father.[102] Although some clashes took place in the autumn, a lasting civil war was avoided through the mediation of the Archbishops Philip of Esztergom and Smaragd of Kalocsa who persuaded Béla and his son to make a compromise.[103][104] According to the Peace of Pressburg, the two divided the country along the Danube: the lands to the west of the river remained under the direct rule of Béla, and the government of the eastern territories was taken over by Stephen, the king-junior.[103]

The relationship between father and son remained tense.[100] Stephen seized his mother's and sister's estates which were situated in his realm to the east of the Danube.[105] Béla's army under the command of Princess Anna crossed the Danube in the summer of 1264.[106][100] She occupied Sárospatak and captured Stephen's wife and children.[103] A detachment of the royal army, under the command of Béla's Judge royal Lawrence forced Stephen to retreat as far as the fortress at Feketehalom (Codlea, Romania) in the easternmost corner of Transylvania.[103][100] The king-junior's partisans relieved the castle and he started a counter-attack in the autumn.[103][100] In the decisive Battle of Isaszeg, he routed his father's army in March 1265.[100]

It was again the two archbishops who conducted the negotiations between Béla and his son.[103] Their agreement was signed in the Dominican Monastery of the Blessed Virgin on Rabbits' Island (Margaret Island, Budapest) on 23 March 1266.[100][103] The new treaty confirmed the division of the country along the Danube and regulated many aspects of the co-existence of Béla's regnum and Stephen's regimen, including the collection of taxes and the commoners' right to free movement.[100][103]

Heir presumptive to his brother

When his brother, Richard of Cornwall becomes the King of the Romans on 13 January 1229. Charles was appointed by his brother, Richard to be Heir presumptive with the title, Duchy of Austria on 1st of June, the same year. Of course, Richard could be the next Holy Roman Emperor, but he turned down. Charles was "Duke of Swabia and Austria". But it was Richard's choice to pick Charles as the next Holy Roman Emperor.

With Charles are on crusade, and was wounded at Arce and now control of his future father-in-law and Constable of Jerusalem John of Arsuf. Charles was given kingship of Jerusalem in 1228, a year before. It was kinda non so popular during his reign in Jerusalem; but he was friendly popular monarch like his predecessors.

As regent for his brother, Charles was able to made relationships with the subjects in the Crusader states, but the most relationship with his father-in-law who was Constable, a commanded the army. As well of the increase relationship with the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (crusaders).

First Imperial election of 1235

The disorder in Germany during the interregnum after the fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty afforded an opportunity for Prince Charles to increase his possessions. His wife was a daughter to the Constable of Jerusalem; and on the death of his childless maternal uncle Count Hartmann IV of Kyburg in 1264, he also seized his valuable estates. Successful feuds with the Bishops of Strasbourg and Basel further augmented his wealth and reputation, including rights over various tracts of land that he purchased from abbots and others.

These various sources of wealth and influence rendered Rudolf the most powerful prince and noble in southwestern Germany (where the tribal Duchy of Swabia had disintegrated, enabling its vassals to become completely independent). In the autumn of 1235, the first Imperial election, the prince-electors met to choose a king after Richard of Cornwall had abdicated in England in 22 November 1229. Prince Charles's election in Frankfurt on 13 December 1235,[107] when he was 25 years old, was largely due to the efforts of his brother, the former king of the romans, Richard of Cornwall. The support of Duke Albert I of Saxony and Elector Palatine Louis II had been purchased by betrothing them to two of Charles's daughters, as well to King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia

As a result, within the electoral college, King Ferdinand III, King of Castile (1217–1252), himself a candidate and only candidate for the throne and related to the late Hohenstaufen king Philip of Swabia (being the son of the eldest surviving daughter), was almost alone in opposing Rudolf. Other candidates were Otto III the Pious and Margrave Henry III of Meissen (1221–1288), a young grandson of the excommunicated Emperor Frederick II, who did not yet even have a principality of his own as his father was still alive. By the admission of Duke Henry XIII of Lower Bavaria instead of the King of Bohemia as the seventh Elector,[108] Charles of York gained all six votes; as one vote goes to Ferdinand III. Charles elected first Holy Roman Emperor on 27 March 1236, after three months of the election.

Reign as the Holy Roman Emperor

Accession to the throne

Holy Roman Emperor
Armoiries empereur Charles IVer Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head
Coats of arms

When his cousin, Frederick II died in 1235. His brother, Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall (later Kaiser Richard of Cornwall), become King of the Romans for five years, until Charles succeeded his brother in 1233. Charles become the Regent of the Empire under the reign of his brother, Richard. Charles, at 25, he was the first elected Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy on 27 March 1236, he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on 24 October 1237 in Frankfurt and King of Italy in Rome on 2 February 1239 by Pope Gregory IX.

With no official capital of the Holy Roman Empire, Charles choice Nuremberg, which becomes a free imperial city as official capital, which no one will claimed the capital until Holy Roman Empire's collapsed in 1806. Which Nuremberg gained piecemeal independence from the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, during the reign of his cousin and predecessor, Frederick II.

Kaiser Charles IV and eagle

Charles IV with his falcon.

Charles set out in the April 1235 of southern Italy in the Northern Alpine part of the Empire. His conflict with his son and the uprising of the Romans forced Emperor and Pope of 1234 to closer cooperation. At the instigation of Gregory Henry VII. was been excommunicated by the Archbishop of Salzburg. Also, the Pope called for the support of Frederick and declared the once paid Heinrich Treueide invalid. [109]

The settlement of the dispute was the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Hermann von Salza, instrumental. He prompted the son to do so to submit to the father. Henry appeared in the July 1235 in which King Pfalz Wimpfen (North of Heilbronn) and renounced any public demonstration of his Royal rank, as a sign of submission. Henry expected by submission not only the Imperial grace to recover, but also its Royal "honor" (honour) to true. In Wimpfen, Heinrich tried unsuccessfully to the bounty of Charles IV. Charles had rather come his son to worms, so in the town, which previously had resisted the toughest Heinrich. Henry appeared in worms in July before his father and he surrendered in the presence of the assembled large, to regain his "gratia" (Grace).

Charles left him long stretched out in humiliating attitude on the ground. Only after the intercession of princes, Henry was allowed to rise. According to the submission ritual (deditio), he received but no mercy, but lost Office. In the next seven years, he was housed in various southern Italian jails, in the February 1242, he died as a prisoner. After a network-theoretical analysis by Robert Gramsch (2013) Charles has not out of consideration for the Prince and the Wainz.

The war against the Pope and Henry's revolt


Battle of Giglio, against Gregory IX (1241)

During Frederick's stay in the Holy Land, his regent, Rainald of Spoleto, had attacked the Marche and the Duchy of Spoleto. Gregory IX recruited an army under John of Brienne and, in 1229, invaded southern Italy. His troops overcame an initial resistance at Montecassino and reached Apulia. Frederick arrived at Brindisi in June 1229. He quickly recovered the lost territories and trialled the rebel barons, but avoided crossing the boundaries with the Papal States.[10] The war came to an end with the Treaty of Ceprano in the summer of 1230; the emperor personally met Gregory IX at Anagni, making some concessions to the church in Sicily.[10] He also issued the Constitutions of Melfi (August 1231), as an attempt to solve the political and administrative problems of the country, which had dramatically been shown by the recent war.[10]

While he may have temporarily made his peace with the pope, Frederick found the German princes another matter. Frederick's son Henry VII (who was born 1211 in Sicily, son of Frederick's first wife Constance of Aragon) had caused their discontent with an aggressive policy against their privileges. This forced Henry to a complete capitulation, and the Statutum in favorem principum ("Statutes in favor of the princes"), issued at Worms, deprived the emperor of much of his sovereignty in Germany.[10] Frederick summoned Henry to a meeting, which was held at Aquileia in 1232. Henry confirmed his submission, but Frederick was nevertheless compelled to confirm the Statutum at Cividale soon afterwards.[10]

The situation for Frederick was also problematic in Lombardy, after all the emperor's attempts to restore the imperial authority in Lombardy with the help of Gregory IX (at the time, ousted from Rome by a revolt) turned to nothing in 1233. In the meantime Henry in Germany had returned to an anti-princes policy, against his father's will: Frederick thus obtained his excommunication from Gregory IX (July 1234). Henry tried to muster an opposition in Germany and asked the Lombard cities to block the Alpine passes. In May 1235, Frederick went to Germany, taking no army with him: as soon as July, however, he was able to force his son to renounce to the crown all his lands, at Worms, and then imprisoned him.[10]

In Germany the Hohenstaufen and the Guelphs reconciled in 1235. Otto the Child, the grandson of Henry the Lion, was deposed as Duke of Bavaria and Saxony in 1180, conveying the allodial Guelphic possessions to Frederick, who in return enfeoffed Otto with the same lands and additional former imperial possessions as the newly established Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ending the unclear status of the German Guelphs, who had been left without title and rank after 1180.

First Assassination attempt

The assassin was an French outlaw, Jean the Tall who was born in France, at the time. Jean the Tall was wanted by French King Louis IX the Saint. Louis warns Emperor Charles IV that Jean the Tall might be within the Holy Roman Empire. Jean the Tall managed to escaped to the Holy Roman Empire. Jean the Tall have been wanted to kill Charles IV since he become King of the Romans since 1229.

On 14 August 1236, the 26-year-old Kaiser Charles IV was exiting Frankfurt to riding in the streets in his free time. He is also wearing an armored with his sword at the time like he always do. Charles IV was stabbed five times while Jean the Tall whispered in his ear while plunging a knife into his abdomen and legs but survived. The wounded Kaiser was in pain and was wounded, Charles IV was lying wounded in the outside of Frankfurt, with his men was in the barracks. The wounds of Charles become weak, which the his body become very weak of his wounds. Charles's did manage to travel to his capital Nuremberg with bleeding arms, stomach and legs.

A day after the assassination attempt, Charles IV was still bleeding of his wounds, which Pope Gregory IX manage to heal Charles IV and give him the blessing. While Charles IV was recovering, Jean the Tall was in shocked that he didn't assassinated the Kaiser. While in hiding, the wounded Charles was proclaimed Jean the Tall a outlaw and wanted; just like French King Louis IX.

While the French outlaw Jean the Tall which the guards and his subjects captured Jean the Tall and put him on trail and face a execution. Charles IV's wounds are badly as he in pain for about a month. Charles recovered after two months, but he will have pain in his stomach and his legs for the rest of his reign.

War in Lombardy


The victorious Battle of Cortenuova against the 2nd Lombard League (1237)

Karl IV platba

Charles IV's troops paid with leather coins during the sieges of Brescia and Faenza,[110] Chigi Codex - Vatican Library

With peace north of the Alps, Frederick raised an army from the German princes to suppress the rebel cities in Lombardy. Gregory tried to stop the invasion with diplomatic moves, but in vain. During his descent to Italy, Frederick had to divert his troops to quell a rebellion of Frederick II, Duke of Austria. At Vienna, in February 1237, he obtained the title of King of the Romans for his 9-year-old son Conrad.[10]

After the failure of the negotiations between the Lombard cities, the pope and the imperial diplomats, Frederick invaded Lombardy from Verona. In November 1237 he won the decisive battle in Cortenuova over the Lombard League. Frederick celebrated it with a triumph in Cremona in the manner of an ancient Roman emperor, with the captured carroccio (later sent to the commune of Rome) and an elephant. He rejected any suit for peace, even from Milan, which had sent a great sum of money. This demand of total surrender spurred further resistance from Milan, Brescia, Bologna, and Piacenza, and in October 1238 he was forced to raise the siege of Brescia, in the course of which his enemies had tried unsuccessfully to capture him.[10]

Frederick received the news of his excommunication by Gregory IX in the first months of 1239[111]:149 while his court was in Padua[citation needed]. The emperor responded by expelling the Franciscans and the Dominicans from Lombardy and electing his son Enzo as Imperial vicar for Northern Italy.[112] Enzo soon annexed the Romagna, Marche, and the Duchy of Spoleto, nominally part of the Papal States. The father announced he was to destroy the Republic of Venice, which had sent some ships against Sicily. In December of that year Frederick marched over Tuscany, entered triumphantly into Foligno, and then in Viterbo, whence he aimed to finally conquer Rome to restore the ancient splendours of the Empire. The siege, however, was ineffective, and Frederick returned to Southern Italy, sacking Benevento (a papal possession). Peace negotiations came to nothing.

In the meantime the Ghibelline city of Ferrara had fallen, and Frederick swept his way northwards capturing Ravenna and, after another long siege, Faenza. The people of Forlì, which had kept its Ghibelline stance even after the collapse of Hohenstaufen power, offered their loyal support during the capture of the rival city: as a sign of gratitude, they were granted an augmentation of the communal coat-of-arms with the Hohenstaufen eagle, together with other privileges. This episode shows how the independent cities used the rivalry between Empire and Pope as a means to obtain maximum advantage for themselves.

The Pope called a council, but Ghibelline Pisa thwarted it, capturing cardinals and prelates on a ship sailing from Genoa to Rome. Frederick thought that this time the way into Rome was opened, and he again directed his forces against the Pope, leaving behind him a ruined and burning Umbria. Frederick destroyed Grottaferrata preparing to invade Rome. Then, on 22 August 1241, Gregory died. Frederick, showing that his war was not directed against the Church of Rome but against the Pope, drew back his troops and freed two cardinals from the jail of Capua. Nothing changed in the relationship between Papacy and Empire, however, as Roman troops assaulted the Imperial garrison in Tivoli and the Emperor soon reached Rome. This back-and-forth situation was repeated again in 1242 and 1243.

Feud and Rivalry with Pope Innocent IV

Main article: Ad Apostolicae Dignitatis Apicem
Castel Del Monte June1997

Castel del Monte, in Andria, Apulia, Italy.

A new pope, Innocent IV, was elected on 25 June 1243. He was a member of a noble Imperial family and had some relatives in Frederick's camp, so the Emperor was initially happy with his election. Innocent, however, was to become his fiercest enemy. Negotiations began in the summer of 1243, but the situation changed as Viterbo rebelled, instigated by the intriguing local cardinal Ranieri Capocci. Frederick could not afford to lose his main stronghold near Rome, so he besieged the city. Innocent convinced the rebels to sign a peace but, after Frederick withdrew his garrison, Ranieri nonetheless had them slaughtered on 13 November. Frederick was enraged. The new Pope was a master diplomat, and Frederick signed a peace treaty, which was soon broken. Innocent showed his true Guelph face, and, together with most of the Cardinals, fled via Genoese galleys to Liguria, arriving on 7 July. His aim was to reach Lyon, where a new council was being held since 24 June 1245. Despite initially appearing that the council could end with a compromise, the intervention of Ranieri, who had a series of insulting pamphlets published against Frederick (in which, among other things, he defined the emperor as a heretic and an Antichrist), led the prelates towards a less accommodating solution.[113] One month later, Innocent IV declared Frederick to be deposed as emperor, characterising him as a "friend of Babylon's sultan", "of Saracen customs", "provided with a harem guarded by eunuchs" like the schismatic emperor of Byzantium, and in sum a "heretic".[114]

The Pope backed Heinrich Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, as rival for the imperial crown and set in motion a plot to kill Frederick and Enzo, with the support of the pope's brother-in-law Orlando de Rossi, another friend of Frederick. The plotters were unmasked by the count of Caserta, however, and the city of Altavilla, where they had found shelter, was razed. The guilty were blinded, mutilated, and burnt alive or hanged. An attempt to invade the Kingdom of Sicily, under the command of Ranieri, was halted at Spello by Marino of Eboli, Imperial vicar of Spoleto.

Innocent also sent a flow of money to Germany to cut off Frederick's power at its source. The archbishops of Cologne and Mainz also declared Frederick deposed, and in May 1246 Heinrich Raspe was chosen as the new king. On 5 August 1246 Heinrich, thanks to the Pope's money, managed to defeat an army of Conrad, son of Frederick, near Frankfurt. Frederick strengthened his position in Southern Germany, however, acquiring the Duchy of Austria, whose duke had died without heirs. A year later Heinrich died, and the new anti-king was William II, Count of Holland.

Between February and March 1247 Frederick settled the situation in Italy by means of the diet of Terni, naming his relatives or friends as vicars of the various lands. He married his son Manfred to the daughter of Amedeo di Savoia and secured the submission of the marquis of Monferrato. On his part, Innocent asked protection from the King of France, Louis IX, but the king was a friend of the Emperor and believed in his desire for peace. A papal army under the command of Ottaviano degli Ubaldini never reached Lombardy, and the Emperor, accompanied by a massive army, held the next diet in Turin.

Battle of Parma

Carlo IV Parma
The unexpected sally of the Guelph cavalry from Parma against Vittoria, from a medieval manuscript

An unexpected event was to change the situation dramatically. In June 1247 the important Lombard city of Parma expelled the Imperial functionaries and sided with the Guelphs. Enzo was not in the city and could do nothing more than ask for help from his father, who came back to lay siege to the rebels, together with his friend Ezzelino III da Romano, tyrant of Verona. The besieged languished as the Emperor waited for them to surrender from starvation. He had a wooden city, which he called "Vittoria", built around the walls.

On 18 February 1248, during one of these absences, the camp was suddenly assaulted and taken, and in the ensuing Battle of Parma the Imperial side was routed. Frederick lost the Imperial treasure and with it any hope of maintaining the impetus of his struggle against the rebellious communes and against the pope, who began plans for a crusade against Sicily. Frederick soon recovered and rebuilt an army, but this defeat encouraged resistance in many cities that could no longer bear the fiscal burden of his regime: Romagna, Marche and Spoleto were lost.

In February 1249 Frederick fired his advisor and prime minister, the famous jurist and poet Pier delle Vigne, on charges of peculation and embezzlement. Some historians suggest that Pier was planning to betray the Emperor, who, according to Matthew of Paris, cried when he discovered the plot. Pier, blinded and in chains, died in Pisa, possibly by his own hand. Even more shocking for Frederick was the capture of his natural son Enzo of Sardinia by the Bolognese at the Battle of Fossalta, in May, 1249. Enzo was held in a palace in Bologna, where he remained captive until his death in 1272.

Frederick lost another son, Richard of Chieti. The struggle continued: the Empire lost Como and Modena, but regained Ravenna. An army sent to invade the Kingdom of Sicily under the command of Cardinal Pietro Capocci was crushed in the Marche at the Battle of Cingoli in 1250. In the first month of that year the indomitable Ranieri of Viterbo died and the Imperial condottieri again reconquered Romagna, the Marche and Spoleto; and Conrad, King of the Romans, scored several victories in Germany against William of Holland.

File:Tomb of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor - Cathedral of Palermo - Italy 2015.jpg

Frederick did not take part in of any of these campaigns. He had been ill and likely felt tired. Despite the betrayals and the setbacks he had faced in his last years, Frederick died peacefully, wearing the habit of a Cistercian monk, on 13 December 1250 in Castel Fiorentino (territory of Torremaggiore), in Apulia, after an attack of dysentery.

At the time of his death, his preeminent position in Europe was challenged but not lost: his testament left his legitimate son Conrad the Imperial and Sicilian crowns. Manfred received the principality of Taranto and the government of the Kingdom, Henry the Kingdom of Arles or that of Jerusalem, while the son of Henry VII was entrusted with the Duchy of Austria and the March of Styria. Frederick's will stipulated that all the lands he had taken from the Church were to be returned to it, all the prisoners freed, and the taxes reduced, provided this did not damage the Empire's prestige.

However, upon Conrad's death a mere four years later, the Hohenstaufen dynasty fell from power and the Great Interregnum began, lasting until 1273, one year after the last Hohenstaufen, Enzo, had died in his prison. During this time, a legend developed that Frederick was not truly dead but merely sleeping in the Kyffhäuser Mountains and would one day awaken to reestablish his empire. Over time, this legend largely transferred itself to his grandfather, Frederick I, also known as Barbarossa ("Redbeard").[115]Template:Failed verification

His sarcophagus (made of red porphyry) lies in the cathedral of Palermo beside those of his parents (Henry VI and Constance) as well as his grandfather, the Norman king Roger II of Sicily. A bust of Frederick sits in the Walhalla temple built by Ludwig I of Bavaria.

Internal policy

As Emperor, Charles was the most favorite monarch of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles IV was gain alliance with his brother, King Henry III.

He also have policy with High Duke Bolesław V and become the English Prince which go to war with Boleslaw in 1254. On 17 September 1253, thanks to the joint efforts of Bolesław V and the Emperor Charles IV, Pope Innocent IV canonized Stanislaus of Szczepanów. On 8 May 1254 celebrations were held in Kraków to honour Saint Stanislaus with a meeting of Piasts princes. On 18 June another meeting took place at Chroberz, where Bolesław V and Charles IV confirmed the privileges granted to the Bishopric of Paris at Oględów.

Second Assassination attempt

Charles who suffered a stab wound to the leg, arm and stomach which he was limping during 1235 assassination attempt, which hurting problems the rest of his reign. An unsuccessful attempt on the life of the kaiser was made on 21 September 1252. The middle-aged Charles IV returned after the Battle of Praha, a Hungarian mercenary was managed to sneak behind Charles, shot him; which misses but hit Charles's son, Prince Conrad (later Conrad III), which Conrad's injury was healed and recovered in ten days. Hungarian mercenary was captured and executed on 10 May the following year.

Cooperation with England

Charles IV and Frederick II are allies of the Kingdom of England with Charles's father, Henry III. Their links with the Hungarians probably resulted from their family relationships - their wives are daughters of King Béla IV. In 1245 both rulers supported the expedition of Rostislav Mikhailovich, who was the Hungarian candidate for the throne of Halych. On 17 August took place the Battle of Jarosław, where the Polish and Hungarian troops were defeated. Finally, a peace treaty was signed at Łęczyca.

In June and July 1253 Polish-Russian forces, including the army of Bolesław V, rushed to Moravia in support of the Hungarian expedition to Austria, which was under the rule of King Ottokar II of Bohemia. The war didn't bring any settlement, despite the Polish-Russian army looting several villages. The conflict ended with a treaty; at this time, Ottokar II (with the help of Paweł of Przemankowo, Bishop of Kraków) tried to persuade Bolesław V to join at his side.

In 1260 erupted another conflict between Hungary and Bohemia, when the Hungarian prince Stephen organized a marauding expedition to Carinthia. From June to July 1260 Bolesław V with Leszek II the Black helped the Hungarians with troops in their fight against Bohemia. On 12 July took place the Battle of Kressenbrunn, who ended with the defeat of the Hungarian army.

On 29 January 1262 during a meeting at Iwanowice, Bolesław V promised to give military support to Bolesław the Pious in his conflict with Henry III the White, who was a supporter of the Kingdom of Bohemia. On 7 June a second meeting took place at Danków, where peace negotiations with Henry III took place. In this opportunity, Władysław Opolski tried unsuccessfully to make a triple alliance with the Bohemian King, Bolesław V and Bolesław the Pious.

Wars with Denmark and Poland


Kaiser Charles IV in 1258.

The relationship with the Kingdom of Denmark and Charles IV with King Eric IV of Denmark, who had a special relationship with each other. Eric IV's death in 10 August 1250, Eric's brother Abel become King. Both Abel and Charles met in Lübeck with peace treaty with Denmark, which the war between Denmark and Holy Roman Empire during Otto IV's reign. When Abel died in 1252, with his brother, Christopher acceded the Danish throne. The relationship between Christopher I and Charles IV is become stall.

Christopher I become suspensions with Charles IV by taken Lübeck, a war broke out in 1254 between the Holy Roman Empire and Kingdom of Denmark over the control of Lübeck. The first siege of Lübeck by the Danes on 4 June 1254; which the Danes was successful for a short while. Charles was anxious to get it back by force. The Danish King was able to hold Lübeck for a couple of months until fall the following year. With the second siege of Lübeck; which ended the Imperial was victory under Charles was command. While Charles IV was at war with two fronts, he made peace with Poland.

Upon given peace within the Holy Roman Empire in 1255, and the Polish king, Bolesław V doesn't recognize Charles IV. With support of Béla IV of Hungary, his father Henry III, both Castile and Aragon kings Alfonso X of Castile and James I the Conqueror, and even Pope Alexander IV; all of the monarchs supporting Charles IV including feudal lord, Ezzelino III da Romano.

In Poland, Bolesław V was not abled to produced a heir to the Polish throne, Charles supported Henryk Probus (later Henryk IV) to the throne. Of course that Charles learned that Henryk Probus supported by the Opolski, and the Silesian Piasts. While Henryk's supported to the next monarch of Poland by Władysław Opolski, Henryk's cousin. The Polish army are commanded by Władysław Opolski, Duke of Opole and Racibórz and the Imperial army are commanded by Charles's son, Prince Conrad (later Kaiser Conrad III) who was at age 18. Władysław and Charles met for the first time at the Raciborz in 1254 which ended with an draw. After the battle, Władysław was captured and imprisoned in Albrechtsburg, Meissen.

Henry III, Pope Alexander IV and Béla IV (later turned against Charles IV after 1258) also declared war on Poland. The Kaiser was in the role in the Battle of Wleń on 23 March 1257, but Charles's failure to capture Wrocław. During the end of the war, Charles IV was deepen shocking that his friend, Gerhard II of Lippe died on 28 August. Charles declared the state of mourning which last a week.

With Poland was suffered by Mongol's invasion of Europe by Khan Berke. Both Bolesław V and Charles IV signed a peace treaty in Kraków on 22 September 1258, and peace treaty in Frankfurt on 19 January of the following year. The two peace treaties are signed by Charles IV and it's allies and Bolesław V and it's allies are 250-year peace among each other, plus they also make a alliance treaty and Charles IV declared war on Berke's Golden Horde.

Civil war

Main article: Duke's War of 1264

Charles and his son, Conrad saw the effects of the a civil war in England when Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester rebelled Charles's brother, Henry III.

In Holy Roman Empire, several dukes and barons are issues to rebelled Charles IV as well, Frederick of Upper Lorraine's relationship with Charles are been decreased throughout the four years. Henry invited his brother, Charles to support. In response, he sent 150,000 Germans soldiers into London. Frederick with few barons turned against Charles, with Frederick's claim to the Imperial throne was becoming pro-war as well of Charles's pro-peace. Frederick captured Conrad, for a few weeks before Conrad escaped, Frederick lead his army and took Nuremberg and München. By result, Charles had no choice to take on Frederick.

On 21 June 1264, Charles's army with loyal subjects re-gained Nuremberg, in few months after Frederick took Nuremberg from Charles. While Frederick failed to take Frankfurt, which Charles told Conrad to re-take München on August 1264. Frederick also took Leipzig, Mariendorf and Koln. Conrad, Charles and Otto III, Margrave of Brandenburg defeated Baron Rudolf of Baden at the Battle of Zürch in 1265.

Civil War in Holy Roman Empire

Charles IV (sitting on the throne) setting Duke Frederick of Lorraine (Emperor Frederick of Lorraine) for treason and forced to exile; in Nuremberg Castle, Nuremberg on 2 March 1268.

Conrad took command of the Imperial army on 1 September 1265, and lead their army to attempted took re-take Baden, leading a successful, but lost a lot of men up to 150,000 men. Charles and Conrad heard the news that Simon de Montfort was killed by his brother's loyal men at the Battle of Evesham. Now, Henry and his son, Edward requested Charles for the assistance, which Charles agreed. Henry and Edward took 500,000 men each and travel to Frankfurt.

Charles re-claim the territories of Leipzig, Mariendorf and Koln with the help of his royal friend, Margrave Otto III. Bela IV, Henry III despased Frederick's claim to the Imperial throne was that Frederick wanting the Imperial throne, as he was pro-war. The German army now leads by Duke-Margrave Otto of Brandenburg as the Holy Roman Empire re took the remaining lands that Frederick took in 5 June 1266. Frederick turns to Charles's rival, Bolesław V the Chaste in Poland to gain the Imperial throne from Charles IV. Bolesław V at first refused, this is at the time the Holy Roman Empire was at war with two fronts.

Charles learned that Prince Conrad wounded and escaped at the Battle of Straßburg. Charles took revenge and captured Baron Ludwig of Leipzing and put to trail of treason. Frederick went round two which failing took Frankfurt and Koln. With the help of King Béla IV of Hungary, Charles defeated Frederick but manage to escaped at the Battle of Limburg in winter of 1268. Frederick and Charles fighting at the Battle of Wurzburg, Charles was managed to defeated Frederick for the second time and Frederick was forced to exile on 2 March 1269.

Health problems

On the spring of 1269, the 59-year-old Charles IV suffered health problems, including a two assassination attempts, in 1235; which Charles had been stabbed five times in stomach and legs, leaving him never recovered and 1252; which he was uninjuried and gout (which he survived in 1270).

When he was a crusader in the Sixth Crusade, Charles was wounded at the Battle of Acre. After the Sixth Crusade, Charles IV returned to Frankfurt which pains in the legs, which caused thick in the legs, and it's caused shaking in the thick legs. He was known as the Crusader Kaiser due to his crusader as the Holy Roman Emperor. Charles also suffered a illness a couple of times in 1270 and 1271. By gaining alliance with England and Hungary, Charles was most popular in England and Hungary, especially in Holy Roman Empire. His limping on the first assassination attempt was crippling for the rest of his reign, until his favourite abdicated in 1272, and his death two years later in 1274.

Abdications and final years

Mort de Charles IV

Kaiser Charles IV on his deathbed on the final hours in 1274.


Tomb of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor in Speyer Cathedral.

Charles abdicated the parts of his empire piecemeal. First he abdicate the Sicilian throne to his son, Manfred in 1255, he abdicated as King of the Romans to his son, Ulrich (used the named Otto V in 1295). He then abdicated Jerusalem throne to Hugh I. In February 1272, he abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy in favor of his elder son, Conrad III who was elected in 1272.

Upon retiring to Nuremberg Castle when his brother, Henry III and Richard of Cornwall, the former King of the Romans invited Charles, after he release fall of 1272, Charles IV complained of pain in his stomach. His later found out that he been diagnosed with Gastric cancer (modern day, Stomach cancer). After two years battled with cancer, Emperor Charles IV died on 5 June 1274 at age of 64 in Nuremberg. On his death, Charles IV his left the rest all of his domains to his son Conrad III, then a prisoner in Catalonia. For the time being, these were held in joint regency by a papal legate and Robert II of Artois. Charles spent his life striving to assemble a Mediterranean empire out of whatever land he could get through law or force of arms. He did so, it seems, with a clear conscience; he regarded himself as God's instrument to uphold the Papacy and punish the Hohenstaufen. He ruled justly, but with the rigidity and severity that might be expected in one of his convictions. Ultimately, his unbending austerity could not inspire the devotion needed to hold his conquests together.

Charles IV's funeral was held on 5–17 October of this year, then the body travel with HRE guards back to Frankfurt in the Holy Roman Empire where he was laying in state, then his body was traveled back in Germany where he was buried in the Speyer Cathedral.



Kaiser Carlo IV and I Plantagenet, Statua Piazza Plebiscito
Statue of Emperor Charles IV on the façade of the Royal Palace in Naples.
Castel del Monte entrance detail2
Detail of the Castel del Monte

Charles's contemporaries called him stupor mundi, the "astonishment of the world";[10] the majority of his contemporaries were indeed astonished – and sometimes repelled – by the pronounced unorthodoxy of the Hohenstaufen emperor and his temperamental stubbornness.[116]

Charles inherited English, German, Norman, and Sicilian blood, but by training, lifestyle, and temperament he was "most of all Sicilian."[117] Maehl concludes that "To the end of his life he remained above all a Sicilian grand signore, and his whole imperial policy aimed at expanding the Sicilian kingdom into Italy rather than the German kingdom southward."[117] Cantor concludes that "Frederick had no intention of giving up Naples and Sicily, which were the real strongholds of its power. He was, in fact, uninterested in Germany."[118]

Charles was a religious sceptic.[10] Despite accusations of blasphemy and paganism, and the presence of pagan and oriental elements in his imperial conceptions, Frederick remained substantially linked to traditional Christianity, as shown by his early contacts with both the Franciscans and the Cistercians (in 1215 he was admitted to that order's praying community), as well as with St Elizabeth.[10] In spite of this, Frederick's religious scepticism was unusual for the era in which he lived, and to his contemporaries was highly shocking and scandalous. His papal enemies used it against him at every turn; he was subsequently referred to as preambulus Antichristi (predecessor of the Antichrist) by Pope Gregory IX, and, as Frederick allegedly did not respect the privilegium potestatis of the Church, he was excommunicated.

In Palermo, where the three-year-old boy was brought after his mother's death, he was said to have grown up like a street youth. He was highly precocious. The only benefit from Innocent III's guardianship was that at fourteen years of age he married a twenty-five-year-old widow named Constance, the daughter of the king of Aragon. Both seem to have been happy with the arrangement, and Constance soon bore a son, Henry.

At his coronation, he may have worn the red silk mantle that had been crafted during the reign of Roger II. It bore an Arabic inscription indicating that the robe dated from the year 528 in the Muslim calendar, and incorporated a generic benediction, wishing its wearer "vast prosperity, great generosity and high splendor, fame and magnificent endowments, and the fulfillment of his wishes and hopes. May his days and nights go in pleasure without end or change". This coronation robe can be found today in the Schatzkammer of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.

Rather than exterminate the Muslim population of Western Sicily, he deported them at Lucera. Not least, he enlisted them in his Christian army and even into his personal bodyguards. As Muslim soldiers, they had the advantage of immunity from papal excommunication. For these reasons, as well as his supposed Epicureanism,[119] Frederick II is listed as a representative member of the sixth region of Dante's Inferno, that of the heretics, who are burned in tombs.

A further example of how much Frederick differed from his contemporaries was the conduct of his Crusade in the Holy Land. Outside Jerusalem, with the power to take it, he parleyed five months with the Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt al-Kamil about the surrender of the city. The Sultan summoned him into Jerusalem and entertained him in the most lavish fashion. When the muezzin, out of consideration for Frederick, failed to make the morning call to prayer, the emperor declared: "I stayed overnight in Jerusalem, in order to overhear the prayer call of the Muslims and their worthy God". The Saracens had a good opinion of him, so it was no surprise that after five months the city of Jerusalem was handed over to him, taking advantage of the war difficulties of al-Kamil. The fact that this was regarded in the Arab as in the Christian world as high treason did not matter to him. When certain members of the Knights Templar wrote al-Kamil a letter and offered to destroy Frederick if he lent them aid, al-Kamil handed the letter over to Frederick. As the Patriarch of Jerusalem refused to crown him king, he set the crown on his own head.

Literature and science

Besides his great tolerance (which, however, did not apply to Christian heretics), Frederick had a great thirst for knowledge and learning. Frederick employed Jews from Sicily, who had immigrated there from the holy land, at his court to translate Greek and Arabic works.[120]

He played a major role in promoting literature through the Sicilian School of poetry. His Sicilian royal court in Palermo, saw the first use of a literary form of an Italo-Romance language, Sicilian. The poetry that emanated from the school had a significant influence on literature and on what was to become the modern Italian language.[citation needed] The school and its poetry were saluted by Dante and his peers and predate by at least a century the use of the Tuscan idiom as the elite literary language of Italy.[121]

Frederick II is the author of the first treatise on the subject of falconry, De Arte Venandi cum Avibus ("The Art of Hunting with Birds"). In the words of the historian Charles Homer Haskins:

It is a scientific book, approaching the subject from Aristotle but based closely on observation and experiment throughout, Divisivus et Inquisitivus, in the words of the preface; it is at the same time a scholastic book, minute and almost mechanical in its divisions and subdivisions. It is also a rigidly practical book, written by a falconer for falconers and condensing a long experience into systematic form for the use of others.[122]
Frederick's pride in his mastery of the art is illustrated by the story that, when he was ordered to become a subject of the Great Khan (Batu) and receive an office at the Khan's court, he remarked that he would make a good falconer, for he understood birds very well.[123] He maintained up to fifty falconers at a time in his court, and in his letters he requested Arctic gyrfalcons from Lübeck and even from Greenland. One of the two existing versions was modified by his son Manfred, also a keen falconer.

Frederick loved exotic animals in general: his menagerie, with which he impressed the cold cities of Northern Italy and Europe, included hounds, giraffes, cheetahs, lynxes, leopards, exotic birds and an elephant.[116]

He was also alleged to have carried out a number of experiments on people. These experiments were recorded by the monk Salimbene di Adam in his Chronicles.[124] Amongst the experiments included shutting a prisoner up in a cask to see if the soul could be observed escaping though a hole in the cask when the prisoner died; feeding two prisoners, sending one out to hunt and the other to bed and then having them disemboweled to see which had digested their meal better; imprisoning children without any contact to see if they would develop a natural language.

In the language deprivation experiment young infants were raised without human interaction in an attempt to determine if there was a natural language that they might demonstrate once their voices matured. It is claimed he was seeking to discover what language would have been imparted unto Adam and Eve by God. In his Chronicles Salimbene wrote that Frederick bade "foster-mothers and nurses to suckle and bathe and wash the children, but in no ways to prattle or speak with them; for he would have learnt whether they would speak the Hebrew language (which had been the first), or Greek, or Latin, or Arabic, or perchance the tongue of their parents of whom they had been born. But he laboured in vain, for the children could not live without clappings of the hands, and gestures, and gladness of countenance, and blandishments."

Frederick was also interested in the stars, and his court was host to many astrologers and astronomers, including Michael Scot and Guido Bonatti.[125][126] He often sent letters to the leading scholars of the time (not only in Europe) asking for solutions to questions of science, mathematics and physics.[127]

In 1224 he founded the University of Naples, the world's oldest state university: now called Università Federico II, it remained the sole atheneum of Southern Italy for centuries.


File:Mummified corpse of frederick II hohenstaufen in palermo (1781).jpg

A Damascene chronicler, Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, left a physical description of Frederick based on the testimony of those who had seen the emperor in person in Jerusalem: "The Emperor was covered with blonde hair, was bald and myopic. Had he been a slave, he would not have fetched 200 dirhams at market." Charles's eyes were described variously as blue, or "green like those of a serpent".[128] Charles's nose are small and perfect, which the beginning his reign towards ages of 26 to 37, he had no beard (which he had a little stubble). Charles IV's mouth is small just like his ally, Alfonzo X of Castile.

The young Kaiser Charles IV was charming with no beard before and during his reign (ages 26 to 37). With his first assassination attempted, he left the young Kaiser wounded and cripple which leads his legs shaking with injuries.

Charles IV was in fact most handsome Prince and even young Emperor. His appearance through out the Holy Roman Empire. During at war, his mail armor was tight which he was fan of tight armors.

Law reforms

His 1231 Edict of Salerno (sometimes called "Constitution of Salerno") made the first legally fixed separation of the occupations of physician and apothecary. Physicians were forbidden to double as pharmacists and the prices of various medicinal remedies were fixed. This became a model for regulation of the practice of pharmacy throughout Europe. [129]

He was not able to extend his legal reforms beyond Sicily to the Empire. In 1232, he was forced by the German princes to promulgate the Statutum in favorem principum ("statute in favor of princes"). It was a charter of liberties for the leading German princes at the expense of the lesser nobility and the entirety of the commoners. The princes gained whole power of jurisdiction, and the power to strike their own coins. The emperor lost his right to establish new cities, castles and mints over their territories. The Statutum severely weakened central authority in Germany. From 1232 the vassals of the emperor had a veto over imperial legislative decisions. Every new law established by the emperor had to be approved by the princes.


Historians rate Frederick II as a highly significant European monarch of the Middle Ages. This reputation was present even in Frederick's era. Lansing and English, two British historians, argue that medieval Palermo has been overlooked in favor of Paris and London:

one effect of this approach has been to privilege historical winners, aspects of medieval Europe that became important in later centuries, above all the nation state.... Arguably the liveliest cultural innovation in the 13th century was Mediterranean, centered on Frederick II's polyglot court and administration in Palermo....Sicily and the Italian South in later centuries suffered a long slide into overtaxed poverty and marginality. Textbook narratives therefore focus not on medieval Palermo, with its Muslim and Jewish bureaucracies and Arabic-speaking monarch, but on the historical winners, Paris and London.[130]

Modern medievalists no longer accept the notion, sponsored by the popes, of Frederick as an anti-Christian. They argue that Frederick understood himself as a Christian monarch in the sense of a Byzantine emperor, thus as God's "viceroy" on earth.[10] Whatever his personal feelings toward religion, certainly submission to the pope did not enter into the matter in the slightest. This was in line with the Hohenstaufen Kaiser-Idee, the ideology claiming the Holy Roman Emperor to be the legitimate successor to the Roman Emperors.

20th century treatments of Frederick vary from the sober (Wolfgang Stürner) to the dramatic (Ernst Kantorowicz).[10] However, all agree on Frederick II's significance as Holy Roman Emperor.[10] In the judgment of British historian Geoffrey Barraclough, Frederick's extensive concessions to German princes—which he made in the hopes of securing his base for his Italian projects—undid the political power of his predecessors and postponed German unity for centuries.

Family and children

Charles IV had ten legitimate children and two illegitimate children, Charles IV married Bartilmebis of Arce on 21 October 1227, at aged at 17.




Named after Charles IV

Other places named after Charles:



  1. 1.0 1.1 Date of Charles's abdication; on 15 February 1272, the college of electors assembled at Frankfort accepted the instrument of Charles IV's imperial resignation and declared the election of Conrad III as emperor p. 716, p. 182
  2. Catholic Encyclopedia - Charles IV
  3. Christian p 143
  4. Alan Harding (1993), England in the Thirteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), p. 10. According to L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal Louis became "master of the country".
  5. Cronica, Giovanni Villani Book VI e. 1. (Rose E. Selfe's English translation)
  6. Smmartino, Peter; Roberts, William (2001-01-01) (in en). Sicily: An Informal History. Associated University Presse. Template:Citation/identifier.
  7. Michael Prestwich: Edward I. University of California Press, Berkeley 1988, ISBN 0-520-06266-3, S. 7
  8. Template:Cite encyclopedia
  9. Marvin Harris, Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches, Chapter 10
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named FedericoTrecc
  11. Peters, ed. (1971). "Roger of Wendover". Christian Society and the Crusades. Philadelphia.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Bartl and others 2002, p. 31.
  13. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 254.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Engel 2001, p. 98.
  15. Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 144.
  16. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 255.
  17. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 254-255.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 145.
  19. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 282.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Makkai 1994a, p. 25.
  21. Master Roger's Epistle (ch. 4), p. 143.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Cartledge 2011, p. 28.
  23. Engel 2001, pp. 96–98.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Curta 2006, p. 409.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8 25.9 Cartledge 2011, p. 29.
  26. Grousset 1970, p. 264.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 Curta 2006, p. 410.
  28. Chambers 1979, p. 91.
  29. Engel 2001, p. 99.
  30. Master Roger's Epistle (ch. 3), p. 141.
  31. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 256.
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 147.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Makkai 1994a, p. 26.
  34. Engel 2001, pp. 99–100.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 Engel 2001, p. 100.
  36. Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, pp. 147–148.
  37. Kristó 2003, pp. 158–159.
  38. Master Roger's Epistle (ch. 28), p. 181.
  39. Chambers 1979, pp. 95, 102–104.
  40. Kirschbaum 1996, p. 44.
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4 41.5 41.6 Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 148.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Molnár 2001, p. 34.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Tanner 2010, p. 21.
  44. Curta 2006, pp. 409, 411.
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 149.
  46. Grousset 1970, pp. 267–268.
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 Cartledge 2011, p. 30.
  48. Fine 1994, pp. 150–151.
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 Engel 2001, p. 104.
  50. 50.0 50.1 Makkai 1994a, p. 27.
  51. 51.0 51.1 Engel 2001, p. 103.
  52. 52.0 52.1 Kontler 1999, p. 78.
  53. 53.0 53.1 Engel 2001, pp. 103–104.
  54. 54.0 54.1 Sălăgean 2005, p. 234.
  55. Sălăgean 2005, p. 235.
  56. Curta 2006, p. 414.
  57. Engel 2001, pp. 104–105.
  58. Bartl and others 2002, p. 32.
  59. 59.0 59.1 Engel 2001, p. 105.
  60. Makkai 1994a, p. 29.
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 151.
  62. Engel 2001, p. 112.
  63. Molnár 2001, pp. 37–38.
  64. 64.0 64.1 Cartledge 2011, p. 31.
  65. Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 257, 263, 268.
  66. 66.0 66.1 Kontler 1999, p. 81.
  67. Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 163.
  68. Molnár 2001, p. 36.
  69. Molnár 2001, p. 37.
  70. Tanner 2010, p. 22.
  71. Fine 1994, p. 152.
  72. Almási 1994, p. 93.
  73. 73.0 73.1 Engel 2001, p. 106.
  74. 74.0 74.1 Bárány 2012, p. 353.
  75. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 263.
  76. 76.0 76.1 Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 150.
  77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 77.3 Žemlička 2011, p. 107.
  78. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 264.
  79. 79.0 79.1 Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 152.
  80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 Kristó 2003, p. 176.
  81. 81.0 81.1 Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 153.
  82. Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, pp. 153–154.
  83. 83.0 83.1 83.2 83.3 Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 154.
  84. Žemlička 2011, p. 108.
  85. 85.0 85.1 Fine 1994, p. 159.
  86. 86.0 86.1 Bárány 2012, p. 355.
  87. 87.0 87.1 87.2 Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 155.
  88. 88.0 88.1 Kristó 2003, p. 177.
  89. 89.0 89.1 Makkai 1994a, p. 30.
  90. Kristó 2003, p. 179.
  91. Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 109.
  92. 92.0 92.1 92.2 Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 157.
  93. 93.0 93.1 93.2 Klaniczay 2002, p. 277.
  94. 94.0 94.1 Kontler 1999, p. 99.
  95. Engel 2001, p. 97.
  96. Klaniczay 2002, p. 231.
  97. Kristó 2003, pp. 180–181.
  98. 98.0 98.1 Fine 1994, p. 174.
  99. Zsoldos 2007, p. 18.
  100. 100.0 100.1 100.2 100.3 100.4 100.5 100.6 100.7 Sălăgean 2005, p. 236.
  101. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 265.
  102. 102.0 102.1 Zsoldos 2007, p. 11.
  103. 103.0 103.1 103.2 103.3 103.4 103.5 103.6 103.7 Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 158.
  104. Zsoldos 2007, p. 21.
  105. Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 159.
  106. Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 160.
  107. Die Habsburger, Eine Europäische Familiengeschichte, Brigitte Vacha, Sonderausgabe 1996, Zeittafel p.16
  108. Vacha, "1273 wurde Rudolf von Habsburg von den sieben Kurfürsten zum König gewält" - "statt dem Böhnenkönig dem bayerischen Herzogtum die siebente Kurstimme übertragen wurde", p.32-33
  109. Theo Broekmann: ' "Rigor iustitiae". Terror in the Norman Hohenstaufen South (1050-1250), rule and law. " Darmstadt 2005, S. 325.
  110. Gierson, Philip (1998). Medieval European Coinage: Vol.14. Cambridge University Press.
  111. Bressler, Richard (2010). Frederick II : the wonder of the world. Yardley, Pennsylvania: Westholme. Template:Citation/identifier.
  112. Adams, John P. (18 September 2014). "SEDE VACANTE 1241-1243". Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  113. Kamp, Norbert. "CAPOCCI, Raniero (Raynerius de Viterbio, Rainerius, Ranerius, Reinerius)". Dizionari Biografico degli Italiani. Enciclopedia Italiana. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  114. Papal bull of excommunication of Frederick II
  115. Ralph Henry Carless Davis, Robert Ian Moore. A History of Medieval Europe.
  116. 116.0 116.1 Cattaneo, Giulio. Federico II di Svevia. Rome: Newton Compton.
  117. 117.0 117.1 Maehl, William Harvey (1979). Germany in Western Civilization. p. 64.
  118. Cantor, Norman F. (1993). The Civilization of the Middle Ages. p. 458.
  119. Singleton, Charles (1989). The Divine Comedy, Vol. 1: Inferno, 2: Commentary. Princeton UP. p. 159. Template:Citation/identifier.
  120. Sicilian Peoples: The Jews of Sicily by Vincenzo Salerno
  121. Gaetana Marrone, Paolo Puppa, and Luca Somigli, eds. Encyclopedia of Italian literary studies (2007) Volume 1 pp. 780–82, also 563, 571, 640, 832–36
  122. Haskins, C. H. (July 1927). "The Latin Literature of Sport". Speculum 2 (3): 244. Template:Citation/identifier.
  123. Albericus Trium Fontium, Monumenta, scriptores, xxiii. 943.
  124. Medieval Sourcebook: Salimbene: On Frederick II, 13th Century
  125. Pabst, Bernhard (2002) (in German). Gregor von Montesacro und die geistige Kultur Süditaliens unter Friedrich II. (Montesacro-Forschungen). Franz Steiner Verlag. p. 307. Template:Citation/identifier. "Vor allem die Astrologie gewann immer an Einfluß und bestimmte teilweise sogar das Handeln der politischen Entscheidungsträger – die Gestalt des Hofastrologen Michael Scotus... ist ein nur ein prominenter Beleg (lit.: Mainly astrology gained ever more influence and in parts it even decided the acting of the political decision makers – the figure of court astrologer Michael Scot is just one prominent reference [among others].)"
  126. Little, Kirk, citing: Campion, Nicholas (2009). The Medieval And Modern Worlds. A History Of Western Astrology. II. Continuum Books. Template:Citation/identifier. "Bonatti, for instance, was perhaps the most famous astrologer of his day and apparently advised Frederick II on military matters."
  127. Template:Cite magazine
  128. Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Mirat al-Zaman', cited in Malouf, Amin The Crusades Through Arab Eyes (J. Rothschild trans.) Saqi Books, 2006, p.230
  129. Rashdall, Hastings (1895). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Clarendon Press. p. 85. Retrieved 20 November 2016. "The physician [...] was not allowed to sell his own drugs ('nec ipse etiam habebit propriam stationem')."
  130. Carol Lansing and Edward D. English, eds. (2012). A Companion to the Medieval World. John Wiley & Sons. p. 4.


  • David Abulafia, The state of research. Charles of Anjou reassessed, in Journal of Medieval History, 26 (2000), pp. 93–114.
  • Jonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades, London, 2nd ed., 2014 ISBN 978-1-78093-767-0
  • Jean Dunbabin, Charles I of Anjou. Power, Kingship and State-Making in Thirteenth-Century Europe, London-New York 1998
  • Runciman, Steven (1958). The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean World in the Later Thirteenth Century. London: Cambridge University Press. Template:Citation/identifier.
  • André Vieusseux, Italy and the Italians in the nineteenth century, London, 1824

External links

Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 26 December 1210 Died: 5 April 1275
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Frederick II
Holy Roman Emperor
27 March 1236 – 15 February 1272
Succeeded by
Conrad IV and III
King of Italy
3 May 1237 – 15 February 1272
Preceded by
Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall
King of the Romans
22 November 1233 – 21 July 1270
Preceded by
Frederick I and VII
King of Sicily
5 January 1228 – 17 April 1255
Succeeded by
Duke of Swabia
Succeeded by
Conrad IV and III
Peerage of England
New creation Earl of York
11 January 1218 – 7 June 1272
Succeeded by
Conrad I

Template:Authority control

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.